All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Effect of Diet Supplementation with Combinations of Soybean and Linseed Oils on Milk Production and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Dairy Ewes

DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.92015, PP. 200-220

Keywords: Ewe Milk, Soybean Oil, Linseed Oil, Conjugated Linoleic Acid

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Thirty-six Pampinta ewes were used in a completely randomized design to examine the effectiveness of soybean (SO) and linseed (LO) oils to reduce the concentration of the atherogenic fatty acids (FA) of milk (C12:0 to C16:0) and increase the content of conjugated linoleic (cis-9, trans-11 C18:2) also called rumenic acid (RA) and vaccenic acids (trans-11C18:1, VA). Six ewes per treatment received a Control diet alone (71% alfalfa hay and 29% concentrate) or supplemented (0.24 kg/ewe·day) with pure oils (SO100 or LO100) or their blend at (%) SO75-LO25, SO50-LO50 and SO25-LO75. Milk yield, milk fat content and milk fat secretion were not affected. Milk protein content resulted higher in SO75-LO25, SO50-LO50 and SO25-LO75 without changes in milk protein yield. Total solid content of milk tended (p < 0.10) to increase after oil intake. Concentration of total atherogenic FA decreased and stearic, oleic and linolenic acids increased after oil intake. Milk content of VA and RA resulted higher in treatments with oils without differences between oil blends. The atherogenicity index (AI) in Control milk (2.23) was reduced (p < 0.001) by oil intake (1.15 to 1.37). The n-6/n-3 ratio averaged 7.27 in Control milk and was reduced (p < 0.001) by oils reaching a minimum value of 1.89 in LO100. Feeding polyunsaturated oils at 7% of total dry matter (DM) intake did not affect the productive response of dairy ewes resulting in an effective tool to improve the healthy value of milk fat. The SO50-LO50 blend showed the highest number of healthy changes in milk FA composition.

References

[1]  Nudda, A., Battacone, G., Boaventura Neto, O., Cannas, A., Francesconi, A.H.D., Atzori, A.S. and Pulina, G. (2014) Feeding Strategies to Design the Fatty Acid Profile of Sheep Milk and Cheese. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 43, 445-456.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982014000800008
[2]  Lee, K.N., Kritchevsky, D. and Pariza, M.W. (1994) Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Atherosclerosis in Rabbits. Atherosclerosis, 108, 19-25.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(94)90034-5
[3]  Chilliard, Y., Ferlay, A., Mansbridge, R.M. and Doreau, M. (2000) Ruminant Milk Fat Plasticity: Nutritional Control of Saturated, Polyunsaturated, Trans and Conjugated Fatty Acids. Annales de Zootechnie, 49, 181-205.
https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2000117
[4]  Ip, C., Singh, M., Thompson, H.J. and Scimeca, J.A. (1994) Conjugated Linoleic Acid Suppreses Mammary Carcinogenesis and Proliferative Activity on the Mammary Gland in the Rat. Cancer Research, 54, 1212-1215.
[5]  Ip, C., Banni, S., Angioni, E., Carta, G., McGinley, J., Thompson, H.J., Barbano, D. and Bauman, D. (1999) Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Enriched Butter Fat Alters Mammary Gland Morphogenesis and Reduces Cancer Risk in Rats. Journal of Nutrition, 129, 2135-2142.
[6]  De La Torre, A., Debiton, E., Juanéda, P., Durand, D., Chardigny, J.M., Barthomeuf, C., Bauchart, D. and Gruffat, D. (2006) Beef Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers Reduce Human Cancer Cell Growth Even When Associated with Other Beef Fatty Acids. British Journal of Nutrition, 95, 346-352.
https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN20051634
[7]  Kelley, N.S., Hubbard, N.E. and Erickson, K. (2007) Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers and Cancer. The Journal of Nutrition, 137, 2599-2607.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/137.12.2599
[8]  Suárez, V. (2004) Sheep Dairy and Pampinta Breed. Revista de Información Sobre Desarrollo e Investigación Agropecuaria, 21, 194-200.
[9]  Busetti, M. (2006) The Quality of Sheep’s Milk. Boletín de Divulgación Técnica, 90, 206-214.
[10]  Suárez, V. and Busetti, M. (1992) Pampinta: A Breed to Obtain Lean Meat and Milk. Estación Experimental Agropecuaria.
[11]  Busetti, M. (2005) Milk Composition of Pampinta Sheep throughout a Period of lactation. Sitio Argentino de Producción Animal.
http://www.produccion-animal.com.ar/.
[12]  Gagliostro, G.A. (2004) Nutritional Control of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Content in Milk and Its Presence in Functional Natural Foods. 2. Production of CLA-Enriched Milk in the Dairy Cow. Revista Argentina de Produccion Animal, 24, 137-163.
[13]  Gagliostro, G.A (2004) Nutritional Control of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Content in Milk and Its Presence in Functional Natural Foods. 3. Production of Milk with High CLA Content through Strategic Supplementation of the Goat. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 24, 165-185.
[14]  Gagliostro, G.A., Patino, E.M. Sanchez Negrette, M., Sager, G. Castelli, L., Antonacci, L.E., Raco, F., Gallello, L., Rodríguez, M.A., Canameras, C., Zampatti, M.L. and Bernal, C. (2015) Milk Fatty Acid Profile from Grazing Buffaloes Fed a Blend of Soybean and Linseed Oils. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Vetérinaria e Zootecnica., 67, 927-934.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4162-7811
[15]  Gómez-Cortés, P. (2010) Effect of Supplementation of the Ovine Diet with Different Lipid Sources on the Fatty Acid Profile of Milk. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas. Departamento de Química Física I. ISBN: 978-84-693-6546-5.
[16]  Castillo Vargas, J.A. (2012) Kinetics of In Vitro Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ruminal Fluid. Tesis de Magister en Producción Animal, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia, Departamento de Producción Animal. Bogotá, Colombia.
[17]  Gómez-Cortés, P., Frutos, P., Mantecón, A.R., Juárez, M., De la Fuente, M.A. and Hervás, G. (2008) Milk Production, Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content, and In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation in Response to High Levels of Soybean Oil in Dairy Ewe. Diet Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 1560-1569.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0722
[18]  Chilliard. Y., Ferlay, A., Rouel, J. and Lamberet, G.A. (2003) Review of Nutritional and Physiological Factors Affecting Goat Milk Lipid Synthesis and Lipolysis. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 1751-1770.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73761-8
[19]  Hervás, G., Luna, P., Mantecón, A.R., Castanares, N., De La Fuente, M.A., Juárez, M. and Frutos, P. (2008) Effect of Diet Supplementation with Sunflower Oil on Milk Production, Fatty acid Profile and Ruminal Fermentation in Lactating Dairy ewes. Journal of Dairy Research, 75, 399-405.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029908003506
[20]  Horneck, D.A. and Miller, R.O. (1998) Determination of Total Nitrogen in Plant Tissue. In: Kalra, Y.P., Eds., Handbook of Reference Methods for Plant Analysis, Soil and Plant Analysis Council, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, 75-83.
[21]  Komareck, A.R., Robertson, J.B. and Van Soest, P.J. (1994) Comparison of the Filter Bag Technique to Conventional Filtration in the Van Soest NDF Analysis of 21 Feeds. In: Fahey, G.C., Ed., Proceedings of National Conference on Forage Quality, Evaluation and Utilization, Nebraska University, Lincoln, 2.
[22]  Komareck, A.R. (1993) An Improved Filtering Technique for the Analysis of Neutral Detergent Fiber and Acid Detergent Fiber Utilizing the Filter Bag Technique. Journal of Animal Science, 71, 824-829.
[23]  AOAC. (2006) Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 18th Edition, AOAC International, Gaithersburg.
[24]  Gagliostro, G.A., Garciarena, D.A., Rodriguez, M.A. and Antonacci, L.E. (2017) Feeding Polyunsaturated Supplements to Grazing Dairy Cows Improve the Healthy Value of Milk Fatty Acids. Agricultural Sciences, 8, 759-782.
https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2017.88057
[25]  SAS Institute Inc. (2002-2010) SAS/STAT User’s Guide.
[26]  Prieto, N.R., Bodas, ó., López-Campos, S., Andrés, S. and Giráldez, F. J. (2014) Effect of Sunflower Oil Supplementation and Milking Frequency Reduction on Sheep Milk Production and Composition. Journal of Animal Science, 91, 446-454.
https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5187
[27]  Martínez-Marín, A.L., Núnez Sánchez, N., Garzón Sigler, A.I., Pena Blanco, F., Domenech García, V. and Hernández Ruipérez, F. (2015) Meta-Analysis of the Use of Seeds and Oils in the Diet of Sheep and Goats, Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 50, 821-828.
[28]  Glasser, F., Ferlay, A. and Chilliard, Y. (2008) Oilseed Lipid Supplements and Fatty Acid Composition of Cow Milk: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 4687-4703.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-0987
[29]  Antonacci, L.E., Rodriguez, A., Castelli, L., Zampatti, M., Castaneda, R., Ceaglio, J. and Gagliostro, G.A. (2013) Supplementation with a Blend of Vegetable Oils and the Fatty Acid Profile of Bovine Milk. Revista Argentina de Produccion Animal, 33.
[30]  Ortega Perez, R. (2012) Fatty Acids Profile in Alternative Forages for the Feeding of Bovines in arid Ecosystems and Fatty Acid Profile in the Milk of Cows of Different Racial Groups in Different Feeding Systems. Tesis de Doctorado. Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, México.
[31]  Flowers, G., Ibrahim, S.A. and AbuGhazaleh, A.A. (2008) Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Grazing Dairy Cows When Supplemented with Linseed Oil. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 3786-3801.
[32]  Pires, J.A.A., Pescara, J.B., Brickner, A.E., Silva del Rio, N., Cunha, A.P and Grummer, R.R. (2008) Effects of Abomasal Infusion of Linseed Oil on Responses to Glucose and Insulin in Holstein Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 1378-1390.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0714
[33]  Cieslak, A., Kowalczyk, J., Czauderna, M., Potkanski, A. and Szumascher-Strabel, M. (2010) Enhancing Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Ewe’s Milk by Feeding Rapeseed or Linseed Oil. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 55, 496-504.
[34]  Solís Limón, F.P (2010) Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Profile in Drought Resistant forages. Tesis de Grado. Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, área de Conocimiento de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Departamento Académico de Zootecnia, 56.
[35]  Nahum, M., Marín, M., Ríos, C. and Meléndez, P. (2016) Milk Fatty Acids Profile and Metabolic Indicators in Postpartum Dairy Cattle Fed with Soiling or Alfalfa Silage under Confinement System. Archivo Medicina Vetérinaria, 48, 29-36.
https://doi.org/10.4067/S0301-732X2016000100004
[36]  Dewhurst, R.J. and King, P.J. (1998) Effects of Extended Wilting, Shading and Chemical Additives on the Fatty Acids in Laboratory Grass Silages. Grass and Forage Science, 53, 219-224.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2494.1998.00130.x
[37]  Gómez-Cortés, P., Toral, P.G., Frutos, P., Juárez, M., De la Fuente, M.A. and Hervás, G. (2011) Effect of the Supplementation of Dairy Sheep Diet with Incremental Amounts of Sunflower Oil on Animal Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Profile. Food Chemistry, 125, 644-651.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.09.053
[38]  Castro-Carrera, T., Frutos, P., Leroux, C., Chilliard, Y., Hervás, G., Belenguer, A., Bernard, L. and Toral, P.G. (2015) Dietary Sunflower Oil Modulates Milk Fatty Acid Composition without Major Changes in Adipose and Mammary Tissue Fatty Acid Profile or Related Gene mRNA Abundance in Sheep. Animal an International Journal of Animal Bioscience, 9, 582-591.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731114002882
[39]  Pirisi, A., Lauret, A. and Dubeuf, J.P. (2007) Basic and Incentive Payments for Goat and Sheep Milk in Relation to Quality. Small Ruminant Research, 68, 167-178.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.009
[40]  Caja, G. and Bocquier, F. (2000) Effects of Nutrition on the Composition of Sheep’s Milk. Options Méditerranèennes, 52, 59-74.
[41]  Shingfield, K.J., Reynolds, C.K., Hervas, G., Griinari, J.M., Grandison, A.S. and Beever, D.E. (2006) Examination of the Persistency of Milk Fatty Acid Composition Responses to Fish Oil and Sunflower Oil in the Diet of Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 89, 714-732.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72134-8
[42]  Jenkins, T.C. (1993) Lipid Metabolism in the Rumen. Journal of Dairy Science, 76, 3851-3863.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77727-9
[43]  Martínez Marín, A.L., Pérez Hernández, M., Pérez Alba, L.M., Gómez-Castro, G. and Carrion Pardo, D. (2011) Effect of Fat Sources on Fiber Digestion in Ruminants. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria, 12, 1-22.
[44]  Chilliard, Y., Glasser, F., Enjalbert, F., Ferlay, A., Bocquier, F. and Schmidely, P.H. (2007) Recent Data on Effects of Feeding Factors on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Cow, Goat and Ewe. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal , 27, 197-213.
[45]  Chilliard, Y. and Ferlay, A. (2004) Dietary Lipids and Forages Interactions on Cow and Goat Milk Fatty Acid Composition and Sensory Properties. Reproduction Nutrition Dévelopément, 44, 467-492.
https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:2004052
[46]  Christie, W.W. (1981) The Effects of Diet and Other Factors on the Lipid Composition of Ruminant Tissues and Milk. In: Christie, W.W., Ed., Lipid Metabolism of Ruminant Animals, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 193-226.
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-023789-3.50009-X
[47]  Storry, J.E. (1981) The Effect of Dietary Fat on Milk Composition. In: Haresing, W., Ed., Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition, Butterworths, London, 3-33.
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-408-71014-5.50005-4
[48]  Piperova, L.L., Teter, B.B., Bruckental, I., Sampugna, J., Mills, S.E., Yurawecz, M.P., Fritsche, J., Ju, K. and Erdman, R.A. (2000) Mammary Lipogenic Enzyme Activity,Trans Fatty Acids and Conjugated Fatty Acids Are Altered in Lactating Dairy Cows Fed a Milk-Fat Depressing Diet. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 2568-2574.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/130.10.2568
[49]  Antonacci, L.E., Gagliostro, G.A., Cano, A.V. and Bernal, C.A. (2017) Effects of Feeding Combinations of Soybean and Linseed Oils on Productive Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Profile in Grazing Dairy Cows. Agricultural Sciences, 8, 984-1002.
https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2017.89072
[50]  Ulbritch, T.L. and Southgate, D.A.T. (1991) Coronary Heart Disease: Seven Dietary Factors. Lancet, 338, 985-992.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(91)91846-M
[51]  Mensink, R.P., Zock, P.L., Kester, A.D.M. and Katan, A.N.D. (2003) Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids and Carbohydrates on the Ratio of Serum Total to HDL Cholesterol and on Serum Lipids and Apolipoproteins: A Meta-Analysis of 60 Controlled Trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77, 1146-1155.
[52]  Roy, A., Chardigny, J.M., Bauchart, D., Ferlay, A., Lorenz, S., Durand, D., Duffart, D., Faulconnier, Y., Sebedio, J.L. and Chilliard, Y. (2007) Butters Rich Either in Trans-10-C18:1 or in Trans-11-C18:1 Plus Cis-9-Trans11 CLA Differentially Affect Plasma Lipids and Aortic Fatty Streak in Experimental Atherosclerosis in Rabbits. Animal an International Journal of Animal Bioscience, 1, 467-476.
[53]  Palmquist, D.L., Lock, A.L., Shingfield, K.J. and Bauman, D.E. (2005) Biosynthesis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Ruminants and Humans. In: Taylor, S.L., Ed., Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, 179-217.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1043-4526(05)50006-8
[54]  Mele, M., Contarini, G., Cercaci, L., Serra, A., Buccioni, A., Povolo, M., Conte, G., Funaro, A., Banni, S., Lercker, G. and Secchiari, P. (2011) Enrichment of Pecorino cheese with Conjugated Linoleic Acid by Feeding Dairy Ewes with Extruded Linseed: Effect on Fatty Acid and Triglycerides Composition and on Oxidative Stability. International Dairy Journal, 21, 365-372.
[55]  Lock, A.L. and Garnsworthy, P.C. (2003) Seasonal Variation in Milk Conjugated Linoleic Acid and ߡ 9-Desaturase Activity in Dairy Cows. Livestock Production Science, 79, 47-59.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00118-5
[56]  Castro, T., Manso, T., Jimeno, V., Del Alamo, M. and Mantecón, A.R. (2009) Effects of Dietary Sources of Vegetable Fats on Performance of Dairy Ewes and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in Milk. Small Ruminant Research, 84, 47-53.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2009.05.005
[57]  Tyburczy, C., Lock, A.L., Dwyer, D.A., Destaillats, F., Mouloungui, Z. and Candy, L. (2008) Uptake and Utilization of Trans Octadecenoic Acids in Lactating Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 3850-3861.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0893
[58]  Awad, A.B., Hermann, T., Fink, C.S. and Horvath, P.J. (1995) 18:1 N7 Fatty Acids Inhibit Growth and Decreased Inositol Phosphate Release in HT-29 Cells Compared to N-9 Fatty Acids. Cancer Letters, 91, 55-61.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3835(95)03725-C
[59]  Turpeinen, A.M., Mutanen, M., Aro, A., Salminen, I., Basu, S., Palmquist, D.L. and Griinari, J.M. (2002) Bioconversion of Vaccenic Acid to Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Humans. American Journal of Clininical Nutrition, 76, 504-510.
https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/76.3.504
[60]  Parodi, P.W. (2003) Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Food. In: Sébédio, J.L., Christie, W.W. and Adloff, R., Eds., Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Food, AOCS Press, Champaign, 101-122.
https://doi.org/10.1201/9781439822166.ch8
[61]  Banni, S., Angioni, E., Murru, E., Carta, G., Melis, M.P., Bauman, D., Dong, Y. and Ip, C. (2001) Vaccenic Acid Feeding Increases Tissue Levels of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Suppreses Development of Premalignant Lesions in Rat Mammary Gland. Nutrition and Cancer, 41, 91-97.
https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2001.9680617
[62]  Siurana, A. and Calsamiglia, S. (2016) A Met Analysis of Feeding Strategies to Increase the Content of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in Dairy Cattle Milk and the Impact on Daily Human Consumption. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 217, 13-26.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.04.013
[63]  Griinari, J.M. and Bauman, D.E. (1999) Biosynthesis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Its Incorporation into Meat and Milk in Ruminants. In: Yurawecz, M.P., Mossoba, M.M., Kramer, J.K.G., Pariza, M.W. and Nelson, G.J., Eds., Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, AOCS Press, Champaign, 180-200.
[64]  Toral, P.G., Frutos, P., Hervás, G.; Gómez-Cortés, P., Juárez, M. and De La Fuente, M.A. (2010) Changes in Milk Fatty Acid Profile and Animal Performance in Response to Fish Oil Supplementation, Alone or in Combination with Sunflower Oil, in Dairy Ewes. Journal of Dairy Science, 93, 1604-1615.
[65]  Lock, A.L, Horne, C.A.M., Bauman, D.E. and Salter, A.M. (2005) Butter Naturally Enriched in CLA and Vaccenic Acid Alters Tissue Fatty Acids and Improves the Plasma Lipoprotein Profile in Cholesterol-Fed Hamsters. Journal of Nutrition, 135, 1934-1939.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/135.8.1934
[66]  Smit, L.A., Baylin, A. and Campos, H. (2010) Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Adipose Tissue and Risk of Myocardial Infarction. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 92, 34-40.
https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2010.29524
[67]  Gagliostro, G.A. (2004) Nutritional Control of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Content in Milk and Its Presence in Functional Natural Foods. 1. Effects on Human Health. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 24, 113-136.
[68]  Sofi, F., Buccioni, A., Cesari, F., Gori, A. M., Minieri, S., Mannini, L., Casini, A., Gensini, G.F., Abbate, R. and Antogiovanni, M. (2010) Effects of a Dairy Product (Pecorino Cheese) Naturally Rich in Cis-9, Trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Lipid, Inflammatory and Haemorheological Variables: A Dietary Intervention Study. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 20, 117-124.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2009.03.004
[69]  Pintus, S., Murru, E., Carta, G., Cordeddu, L., Batetta, B., Accossu, S., Pistis, D., Uda, S., Ghiani, M.E., Mele, M., Secchiari, P., Almerighi, G., Pintus, P. and Banni, S. (2013) Sheep Cheese Naturally Enriched in A-Linolenic, Conjugated Linoleic and Vaccenic Acids Improves the Lipid Profile and Reduces Anandamide in the Plasma of Hypercholesterolaemic Subjects. British Journal of Nutrition, 109, 1453-1462.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114512003224
[70]  Mele, M., Buccioni, A., Petacchi, F., Serra, A., Serra, S., Banni, S., Antongiovanni, M. and Secchiari, P. (2006) Effect of Forage/Concentrate Ratio and Soybean Oil Supplementation on Milk Yield, and Composition from Sarda Ewes. Animal Research, 55, 273-285.
https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2006019
[71]  Bu, D.P., Wang, J.G., Dhiman, T.R. and Liu, S.J. (2007) Effectiveness of Oils Rich in Linoleic and Linolenic Acids to Enhance Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk from Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 998-1007.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)71585-0
[72]  FAO (2012) Grasas y ácidos Grasos en Nutrición Humana. Consulta de Expertos. Estudio Fao Nutrición, 204.
[73]  Husted, K.S. and Bouzinova, S.V. (2016) The Importance of N-6/N-3 Fatty Acids Ratio in the Major Depressive Disorder. Medicina, 52, 139-147.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2016.05.003

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus