All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Online Money Flows: Exploring the Nature of the Relation of Technology’s New Creature to Money Supply—A Suggested Conceptual Framework and Research Propositions

DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.82017, PP. 250-305

Keywords: Technology and Money Flows, E-Commerce Online Money Flows, Abduction Method, Online Money Flows and Money Supply (M2), Complex Systems Interaction

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Framing the analysis of Technology influences in an extended scenario of macroeconomic topics of the kind of Money Supply, attention is given to changes in economic paradigms that technology is constantly creating globally, focusing the research interest in the nature of the relation between cross border E-Commerce online money flows and Money Supply. As this context requires to find an explanation that cannot be provided by pre-existing theory, the abduction or abductive approach is considered to be suitable to investigate how far available data on the matter fits with the stated research subject identified at a crossroad of Technology Theory, Business Theories and Monetary Theory. The findings disclose that the nature of this relation is rooted in the Directionality, Dynamism, Intensity and Structural Properties, connected in a relational net that favors the configuration of a Theoretical body of knowledge. From the propositions’ relational models shape, a key finding come into sight as is supported the notion that cross border E-Commerce online money transfer, is a process by which cash money in circulation (Money Aggregate M1) is transformed into highly liquid assets other than cash, referred to as Quasi-Money, leading to dynamic changes for Money Supply net value and in the velocity of money. This view is consistent with the appreciation that being online money flows one new additional component of M2, they are absorbed by Money Supply being for that reason a priority issue for monetary policy interest. The emergent relational net, outlines a theory in which recognizing online money flows as a technology derived component—a technology creature—Technology influences reach the Economy at macro level by means of its effects over Money Supply M2 Aggregate. The research process


[1]  Brynjolfsson, E. and Hitt, L. (1995) Information Technology as a Factor of Production: The Role of Differences among Firms, Economics of Innovation and New Technology. Information Technology and Productivity Paradox, 3, 183-200.
[2]  McKinsey & Company (2009) McKinsey Global Survey Results: IT in the New Normal. In: Roberts, R. and Stikes, J.
[3]  Davis, F. (1989) Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly, 13, 319-339.
[4]  OECD. Tax Administration 2017. Comparative Information on OECD and Other Advanced Emerging Economies. September 29, 2017.
[5]  Du Rausas, M. Manyika, J., Hasan, E., Bughin, J., Chui, M. and Said, R. (2011) Internet Matters, The Net’s Sweeping Impact on Growth, Jobs and Prosperity. The Mckinsey Global Institute (MGI).
[6]  Deloitte (2017) What Is Digital Economy? Deloitte, New York.
[7]  OECD (2015) OECD Digital Economy Outlook. OECD Publishing, Paris.
[8]  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. UNCTAD (2016) UNCTAD B2C E-Commerce Index 2016.
[9]  Johnson, P. (2016) A Glossary of Political Economy Terms. Money Stock.
[10]  Helleiner, E. (1998) Electronic Money: A Challenge to the Sovereign State? Journal of International Affairs, 51, 387-409.
[11]  Woodford, M. (2001) Monetary Policy in the Information Economy. Princeton University, Department of Economics. Prepared for the “Symposium on Economic Policy for the Information Economy”. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Jackson Hole, August 30-September 1. NBER Working Paper No. 8674, National Bureau of Economic Research, 22.
[12]  Katafono, R. (2004) The Implications of Evolving Technology on Monetary Policy: Literature Survey. Reserve Bank of Fiji: Economics Department Working Paper.
[13]  Popovska-Kamnar, N. (2014) The Use of Electronic Money and Its Impact on Monetary Policy. JCEBI, Journal of Contemporary Economic and Business Issues, 1, 79-92.
[14]  Merriman-Webster Dictionary.
[15]  Cambridge English Dictionary.
[16]  EC (2000) Directive 2000/46/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. Article 1 (3b). Brussels, September 18 2000.
[17]  Hespeler, F. (2008) Electronic Money and the Monetary Transmission Process. Cuvillier.
[18]  Oxford Dictionaries.
[19]  Turban, E., Leidner, D., McLean, E. and Wetherbe, J. (2008) Information Technology for Management. Transforming Organizations in the Digital Economy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 164.
[20]  Bukht, R. and Heeks, R. (2017) Defining, Conceptualizing and Measuring the Digital Economy. The Development Informatics Working Paper Series, Paper No. 68. Centre for Development Informatics, Global Development Institute, SEED, University of Manchester, UK.
[21]  Ely, B. (1996) Electronic Money and Monetary Policy: Separating Fact from Fiction. The Future of Money in the Information Age, CATO Institute’s 14th Annual Conference, 23 May 1996, 1-9.
[22]  Berentsen, A. (1997) Digital Money, Liquidity and Monetary Policy. Firstmonday.
[23]  Reynolds, G. (2004) Electronic Money and Monetary Policy. Southwestern Economic Proceedings, 47-55.
[24]  Al Laham, M., Abdallat, N. and Tarawneh, H. (2009) Development of the Electronic Money and its Impact on the Central Bank Role and Monetary Policy. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 6, 339-349.
[25]  Official Journal of the European Union (2009) REGULATION (EC) No. 25/2009 of the European Central Bank of 19 December 2008 Concerning the Balance Sheet of the Monetary Financial Institutions Sector (Recast) (ECB2008/32). Official Journal of the European Union.
[26]  Athanassiou, P. and Mas-Guix, N. (2008) Electronic Money Institutions. Current Trends, Regulatory Issues and Future Prospects. European Central Bank. Legal Working Paper Series. No. 7/ July 2008.
[27]  Bank for International Settlements (2004) Survey of Developments in Electronic Money and Internet and Mobile Payments. Committee of Payment and Settlement Systems, Bank of International Settlements, Switzerland.
[28]  Center for Research in Electronic Commerce of the University of Texas, CREC (2000) University of Texas. Measuring the Internet Economy. 6 June 2000.
[29]  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. UNCTAD (2016) UNCTAD B2C E-Commerce Index 2016. UNCTAD Technical Notes for ICT Development. No. 7.
[30]  ECommerce Foundation (2016) Global B2C E-Commerce Report 2016. 9, 14, 100, 104. ECommerce Foundation, Amsterdam.
[31]  US Census Bureau (2017) E-Stats 2015: Measuring the Electronic Economy.
[32]  US Census Bureau (2017) Annual Retail Trade Survey Methodology.
[33]  ECommerce Foundation (2015) Global B2C E-Commerce Report 2015. ECommerce Foundation, Amsterdam.
[34]  European Commission (2016) Executive of the European Union EU. (1). “VAT Digital Single Market Package”. 1 December 2016.
[35]  European Commission (2016) Executive of the European Union EU. (2). Fact Sheet. “Modernizing VAT for e-Commerce: Questions and Answers”. Brussels, 1 December 2016.
[36]  European Central Bank. Bank, European Central. Monetary Aggregates.
[37]  Deardorff, A. Glossary of International Economics.
[38]  World Bank (2016) World Development Indicators. Economy. Financial Accounts. Washington DC. World Bank. 106. License: Creative Commons Attribution CCBY 3.0 IG0.
[39]  The ECB’s Definition of Euro Area Monetary Aggregates.
[40]  Ladyman, J., Lambert, J. and Wiesner, C. (2013) What Is a Complex System? European Journal of Philosophy of Science, 3, 33-67.
[41]  Byrne, D. and Callahan, G. (2014) Complexity Theory and the Social Sciences. Routledge, London, New York.
[42]  Arthur, W., Durlauf, S. and Lane, D. (1997) Process and Emergence in the Economy. In: Arthur, W.B, Durlauf, B. and Lane, A., Eds., The Economy as an Evolving System II, Introduction to Volume II, Addison Wesley, Menlo Park, 4-5.
[43]  US Census Bureau (2017) Annual Retail Trade Survey-2015: Annual Retail E-Commerce Sales Report. (2015) Estimated Annual Sales for Electronic Shopping and Mail Order Houses (NAICS 45411)-Total E-commerce Sales by Merchandise Line: 1999-2015. Table e-Commerce 4551 xl.
[44]  DigitSmith:1. Ecommerce Definition & Types of Ecommerce.
[45]  Erosa, V.E. (2013) Technology Policy Implementation Road: Exploring Firm’s Technology Readiness in a Mandatory Vertical Diffusion Environment. Journal of Service Science and Management, 6, 20-31.
[46]  Cambridge Dictionary.
[47]  Ragin, C. (1994) Constructing Social Research: The Unity and Diversity of Method. Pine Forge Press, Sage.
[48]  Alvesson, M. and Sköldberg, K. (2000) Reflexive Methodology: New Vistas for Qualitative Research. Sage Publications Ltd., London.
[49]  Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Aldine Publishing Company, New York.
[50]  Dul, J. and Hak, T. (2008) Case Study Methodology in Business Research. Elsevier, Ltd.
[51]  Greener, I. (2011) Explaining Social Research: A Guide for the Bewildered. SAGE, London.
[52]  Bryant, A. and Charmaz, K. (2007) Grounded Theory in Historical Perspective: An Epistemological Account. In: Bryant, A. and Charmaz, K., Eds., The SAGE Handbook of Grounded Theory, Sage, Los Angeles, 31-57.
[53]  Strauss, A.L. and Corbin, J.M. (1990) Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Sage, London.
[54]  Bryant, A. (2009) Grounded Theory and Pragmatism: The Curious Case of Anselm Strauss Forum. Qualitative Social Research, 10.
[55]  Peirce, C. (1955) Abduction and Induction. In: Buchler, J., Ed., Philosophical Writings of Peirce, Dover Publications Inc., New York, 150-156.
[56]  Fann, K.T. (1970) Peirce’s Theory of Abduction. Martinius Nijhoff, The Hague.
[57]  Alvesson, M. and Sköldberg, K. (2009) Reflexive Methodology: New Vistas for Qualitative Research. 2nd Edition, Sage Publications Ltd., London.
[58]  Dubois, A. and Gadde, L. (2002) Systematic Combining: An Abductive Approach to Case Research. Journal of Business Research, 55, 553-560.
[59]  Anderson, J.A. (1986) Communication Research: Issues and Methods. McGraw-Hill College, New York.
[60]  Philipsen, K. (2018) Theory Building: Using Abductive Research Strategies. In: Young, L. and Freytag, P., Eds., Collaborative Research Design: Working with Business for Meaningful Findings, Springer, Singapore.
[61]  Danermark, B., Ekstrom, M., Jacobsen, L. and Karlsson, J. (2001) Explaining Society: An Introduction to Critical Realism in the Social Sciences. Routledge, London.
[62]  Porter, M. and Miller, V. (1985) How Information Technology Gives You a Competitive Advantage. Harvard Business Review, 149-160.
[63]  Penrose, E. (1959) The Theory of the Growth of the Firm. 4th Edition, Oxford University Press, New York.
[64]  Wernerfelt, B. (1984) A Resource-Based View of the Firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5, 171-180.
[65]  Barney, J. (1986) Strategic Factor Markets: Expectations, Luck and Business Strategy. Management Science, 42, 1231-1241.
[66]  Shumpeter, J. (1942) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Harper Brothers, USA.
[67]  Leonard-Barton, D. and Rogers, E. (1981) Horizontal Diffusion: An Alternative Paradigm to the Classical Diffusion Model. Sloan School of Management, MIT. Working Paper # 1214-81.
[68]  Leonard-Barton, D. (1982) Applying Innovation Diffusion Theory to the Management of Change. Sloan School of Management, MIT. Working Paper # 1295-82.
[69]  Rogers, E. (2003) Diffusion of Innovations. 5th Edition, Simon & Schuster.
[70]  Amit, R. and Shoemaker, P. (1993) Strategic Assets and Organizational Rent. Strategic Management Journal, 14, 33-46.
[71]  Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (1975) Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Addison Wesley, Reading.
[72]  Thornton, H. (1802) An Inquiry into the Nature and Effects of the Paper Credit of Great Britain. London, 18, 84.
[73]  Fisher, I. (1922) The Purchasing Power of Money, Its Determination and Relation to Credit, Interest and Crises. Second Edition, Macmillan, New York.
[74]  Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (2013)
[75]  Feldstein, M. and Stock, J. (1973) The Use of Monetary Aggregate to Target Nominal GDP. In: Mackinnon, R., Ed., Money and Capital in Economic Development, Brooking Institution, Washington DC.
[76]  von Mises, L. (1924) Stabilization of the Monetary Unit From the Viewpoint of Theory. In: von Mises, L., Ed., On the Manipulation of Money and Credit, Free Market Books, Greaves, 155-162.
[77]  Cagan, P. (1965) Determinants and Effects of Changes in the Stock of Money, 1875-1960. NBER.
[78]  Friedman, M. (1956) The Quantitative Theory of Money-A Restatement. In: Friedman, M., Ed., Studies in the Quantitative Theory of Money, University of Chicago Press.
[79]  Krugman, P. (2011) Way off Base. The New York Times, October 7 2011.
[80]  Kremmerer, E. (1907) Money and Credit Instruments and Their Relation to General Prices. Lightning Source, 180.
[81]  Cambridge Dictionary.
[82]  eMarketer (2016) Worldwide Retail Ecommerce Sales: Emarketer’s Updated Estimates and Forecast Through 2019. eMarketer Inc., New York.
[83]  Nielsen (2014) E-Commerce: Evolution or Revolution in the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods World. Nielsen Global Survey for E-Commerce.
[84]  Pitney Bowes (2014) Global Online Shopping Study.
[85]  AMIPCI (2016) Ecommerce Study 2016. Public Version. AMIPCI. Mexican Association for Electronic Commerce. 8, 12.
[86]  The World Bank Group (2017) Table 4.2. World Development Indicators: Structure of Output.
[87]  ECommerce Foundation. Global B2C E-Commerce Global Report 2014. 35.
[88]  US Census Bureau. E-Stats-Measuring the Electronic Economy Welcome to E-Stats.
[89]  US Census Bureau (2015) Estimated Quarterly U.S. Retail Sales: Total and E-Commerce. US Department of Commerce, Washington DC.
[90]  The Paypapers ECommerce Reports (2014). China. 7.
[91]  The Paypapers ECommerce Reports (2014). South Africa. 8.
[92]  The Paypapers ECommerce Reports (2014). Mexico. 8.
[93]  The World Bank Group (2015) The World Bank Catalog Sources, World Development Indicators. Series FM.LBL.MQMY.CN.
[94]  Erosa, V. (2012) Dealing with Cultural Issues in the Triple Helix Model Implementation. A Comparison among Government, University and Business Culture. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Elsevier, 52, 25-34.
[95]  Ecommerce Foundation (2016) Cross-Border E-Commerce Barometer 2016. Barriers to Grow. Report Commissioned by Ecommerce Europe. May 2016. 29.
[96]  The New York Times.


comments powered by Disqus