All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Psychology  2018 

Multi-Parametric Analysis of Aggressive Communication and Motivation Climate in Physical Education

DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.92012, PP. 179-203

Keywords: Verbal Aggressiveness, Argumentativeness, Motivational Climate, Perceptions, PE Teachers, Students

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine verbal aggressiveness, argumentativeness and motivation climate in a multi-parametric context. Nine hundred and three (903) students (448 males, 455 females), whose age varied from 10 to 17 years old (M = 13.8, SD = 2.3), participated in this study. The findings revealed that instructors’ verbal aggressiveness was positively related to performance climate and negatively to argumentativeness and mastery climate, while argumentativeness was positively related to mastery climate. Additionally, the multiple regression analysis presented that argumentativeness and the created motivational climate were negative predictors of verbal aggressiveness. High school students perceive their instructor more argumentative and reported the lower score on performance climate. Urban schools presented higher levels on verbal aggressiveness and performance climate. Students from 9th grade proved to have higher score in verbal aggressiveness, 7th grade in argumentativeness and mastery climate. Finally, students from 6th grade perceived that their instructors created performance climate in higher levels. Furthermore, Mancova indicated that the covariates, mastery and performance climate explained a statistically significant proportion of variance of verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness between classes. Moreover, instructors who use low level of verbal aggressiveness proved to have higher score in argumentativeness and mastery climate. Also, high level of verbal aggressiveness was presented in performance climate. Finally, Ancova reported that argumentativeness was a significant covariate of verbal aggressiveness on performance climate.

References

[1]  Aloia, L. S., & Solomon, D. H. (2016). Emotions Associated with Verbal Aggression Expression and Suppression. Western Journal of Communication, 80, 3-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570314.2014.943428
[2]  Ames, C. (1992a). Classrooms: Goals, Structures, and Student Motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261-271.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.84.3.261
[3]  Ames, C. (1992b). Achievement Goals, Motivational Climate, and Motivational Processes. In G. C. Roberts (Eds.), Motivation in Sport and Exercise (pp. 161-176). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
[4]  Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement Goals in the Classroom: Students’ Learning Strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 260-267.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.80.3.260
[5]  Atkins, M. R., Johnson, D. M., Force, E. C., & Petrie, T. A. (2015). Peers, Parents, and Coaches, Oh My! The Relation of the Motivational Climate to Boys’ Intention to Continue in Sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 170-180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.10.008
[6]  Avtgis, T. A., Rancer, A. S., Kanjeva, P. A., & Chory, R. M. (2008). Argumentative and Aggressive Communication in Bulgaria: Testing for Conceptual and Methodological Equivalence. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 37, 17-24.
https://doi.org/10.1080/17475750802077354
[7]  Avtgis, T., & Rancer, A. S. (2010). Arguments, Aggression, and Conflict: New Directions in Theory and Research. New York: Routledge.
[8]  Bekiari, A. & Spanou, K. (2018). Machiavellianism in Universities: Perceiving Exploitation in Student Networks. Social Networking, 7, 19-31.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/sn.2018.71002
[9]  Bekiari, A. (2012). Perceptions of Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Physical Education Students’ Affective Learning. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 115, 325-335.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/06.11.16.PMS.115.4.325-335
[10]  Bekiari, A. (2014). Verbal Aggressiveness and Leadership Style of Sports Instructors and their Relationship with Athletes’ Intrinsic Motivation. Creative Education, 5, 114-121.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ce.2014.52018
[11]  Bekiari, A. (2016). Insights into Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Students’ Machiavellianism through Leadership Style and Motivational Climate. European Scientific Journal, 12, 90-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.19044/esj.2016.v12n25p90
[12]  Bekiari, A. (2017a). Exploring Relations between Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness and Students’ Fair Play Behaviours and Machiavellianism. International Journal of Physical Education, 54, 26-39.
[13]  Bekiari, A. (2017b). Verbally Aggressive Instructors and Machiavellian Students: Is the Socio-Communicative Style an Over-Bridging? Psychology, 8, 1437-1454.
http://dx.doi:10.4236/psych.2017.810095
[14]  Bekiari, A., & Balla, K. (2017). Instructors and Students Relations: Argumentativeness, Leadership and Goal Orientations. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 128-143.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2017.57009
[15]  Bekiari, A., & Digelidis, N. (2015). Measuring Verbal Aggressiveness in Sport and Education. International Journal of Physical Education, 52, 12-21.
[16]  Bekiari, A., & Hasanagas, N. (2015). Verbal Aggressiveness Exploration through Complete Social Network Analysis: Using Physical Education Students’ Class as an Illustration. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 3, 30-49.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11114/ijsss.v3i3.729
[17]  Bekiari, A., & Hasanagas, N. (2016a). Sociological Insights in the Education System: ‘‘Unlocking’’ the Power Relations. Thessaloniki: Afoi Kyriakidi Editions S.A.
[18]  Bekiari, A., & Hasanagas, N. (2016b). ‘‘Educating’’ in Physical Education. Theoretical Approaches and Practical Inquiries. Thessaloniki: Afoi Kyriakidi Editions S.A.
[19]  Bekiari, A., & Hasanagas, N. (2016c). Suggesting Indicators of Superficiality and Purity in Verbal Aggressiveness: An Application in Adult Education Class Networks of Prisoners. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 279-292.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.43035
[20]  Bekiari, A., & Manoli, P. (2016). EFL Teacher Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness and Student Socio-Affective Strategy Use and Affective Learning: Exploring Possible Associations. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 5, 154-171.
[21]  Bekiari, A., & Ntakou, V. (2018). Insights to Argumentativeness in Relation to Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction: Using Employees’ Sport Organizations as an Illustration. Open Journal of Leadership. (In Press)
[22]  Bekiari, A., & Pachi, V. (2017). Insights into Bullying and Verbal Aggressiveness through Social Network Analysis. Journal of Computer and Communications, 5, 79-101.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jcc.2017.59006
[23]  Bekiari, A., & Petanidis, D. (2016). Exploring Teachers’ Verbal Aggressiveness through Interpersonal Attraction and Students’ Intrinsic Motivation. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 72-85.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.412007
[24]  Bekiari, A., & Pylarinou, M. (2017). Instructor Argumentativeness and Socio-Communicative Style and Student Discipline: Using Physical Education Students’ Class as an Illustration. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 122-136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2017.53011
[25]  Bekiari, A., & Sakellariou, K. (2003). Perceived Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness and Student State Learning in Physical Education. Italian Journal of Sport Sciences, 1, 251-256.
[26]  Bekiari, A., & Spyropoulou, S. (2016). Exploration of Verbal Aggressiveness and Interpersonal Attraction through Social Network Analysis: Using University Physical Education Class as an Illustration. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 145-155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.46016
[27]  Bekiari, A., & Syrmpas, I. (2015). Coaches’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Motivational Climate as Predictors of Athletes’ Satisfaction. British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 9, 318-329.
http://dx.doi:10.9734/BJESBS/2015/17757
[28]  Bekiari, A., & Tsaggopoulou, T. (2016). Verbal Aggressiveness and Affective Learning in Physical Education. Advances in Physical Education, 6, 406-418.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ape.2016.64041
[29]  Bekiari, A., & Tsiana, I. (2016). Exploring Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Students’ Personal Orientations and Reasons of Discipline in Physical Education Class. Advances in Physical Education, 6, 158-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ape.2016.63018
[30]  Bekiari, A., Deliligka, S., & Hasanagas, N. (2017). Analysing Networks of Verbal Aggressiveness and Motivation. Psychology, 8, 495-515.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2017.83031
[31]  Bekiari, A., Deliligka, S., & Koustelios, A. (2016). Examining Relations of Aggressive Communication in Social Networks. Social Networking, 6, 38-52.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/sn.2017.61003
[32]  Bekiari, A., Digelidis, N., & Sakellariou, K. (2006). Perceived Verbal Aggressiveness of Coaches in Volleyball and Basketball: A Preliminary Study. Psychological Reports, 103, 526-530.
http://dx.doi:10.2466/PMS.103.2.526-530
[33]  Bekiari, A., Kokaridas, D., & Sakellariou, K. (2005). Verbal Aggressiveness of Physical Education Teachers and Students’ Self-Reports of Behaviour. Psychological Reports, 96, 493-498.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.96.2.493-498
[34]  Bekiari, A., Kokaridas, D., & Sakellariou, K. (2006). Associations of Students’ Self-Reports of Their Teacher’s Verbal Aggression, Intrinsic Motivation, and Perceptions of Reasons for Discipline in Greek Physical Education Classes. Psychological Reports, 98, 451-461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/PR0.98.2.451-461
[35]  Bekiari, A., Koustelios, A., & Sakellariou, K. (2000). Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness from Universities in Greece. Studi e Ricerche, 5, 225-232.
[36]  Bekiari, A., Nikolaidou, Z., & Hasanagas, N. (2017). Typology of Motivation and Aggression on the Basis of Social Network Variables: Examples of Complementary and Nested Behavioral Types through Conventional Statistics. Social Networking, 6, 135-147.
https://doi.org/10.4236/sn.2017.62008
[37]  Bekiari, A., Pachi, V., & Hasanagas, N. (2017). Investigating Bullying Determinants and Typologies with Social Network Analysis. Journal of Computer and Communications, 5, 11-27.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jcc.2017.57002
[38]  Bekiari, A., Patsiaouras, A., Kokaridas, D., & Sakellariou, K. (2006). Verbal Aggressiveness and State Anxiety of Volleyball Players and Coaches. Psychological Reports, 99, 630-634.
https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.99.2.630-634
[39]  Bekiari, A., Perkos, S., & Gerodimos, V. (2015). Verbal Aggression in Basketball: Perceived Coach Use and Athlete Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 15, 96-102.
http://dx.doi:10.7752/jpes.2015.01016
[40]  Beltman, S., & Volet, S. (2007). Exploring the Complex and Dynamic Nature of Sustained Motivation. European Psychologist, 12, 314-323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040.12.4.314
[41]  Bengoechea, E. G., & Strean, W. B. (2007). On the Interpersonal Context of Adolescents’ Sport Motivation. Psychology of sport and exercise, 8, 195-217.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.03.004
[42]  Bortoli, L., Bertollo, M., Vitali, F., Filho, E., & Robazza, C. (2015). The Effects of Motivational Climate Interventions on Psychobiosocial States in High School Physical Education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 86, 196-204.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2014.999189
[43]  Braithwaite, R., Spray, C. M., & Warburton, V. E. (2011). Motivational Climate Interventions in Physical Education: A Meta-Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 628-638.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.06.005
[44]  Bryan, C. L., & Solmon, M. A. (2012). Student Motivation in Physical Education and Engage-ment in Physical Activity. Journal of Sport Behavior, 35, 267.
[45]  Coyne, S. M., & Archer, J. (2004). Indirect Aggression in the Media: A Content Analysis of British Television Programs. Aggressive Behavior, 30, 254-271.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20022
[46]  Cumming, S. P., Smoll, F. L., Smith, R. E., & Grossbard, J. R. (2007). Is Winning Everything? The Relative Contributions of Motivational Climate and Won-Lost Percentage in Youth Sports. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19, 322-336.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10413200701342640
[47]  Cunningham, G. B., & Xiang, P. (2008). Testing the Mediating Role of Perceived Motivational Climate in the Relationship between Achievement Goals and Satisfaction: Are These Relationships Invariant across Sex? Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 27, 192-204.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.27.2.192
[48]  Deliligka, S., Bekiari, A., & Syrmpas, I. (2017). Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness in Physical Education: Perceptions of Teachers and Students in Qualitative and Quantitative Exploration. Psychology, 8, 1693-1717.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2017.811112
[49]  Deliligka, S., Syrmpas, I., & Bekiari, A. (2018). The Motivational Climate in the PE Context through the Perspective of Teachers and Students. The Physical Educator. (Forthcoming)
[50]  Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2005). After-School Sport for Children: Implications of a Task-Involving Motivational Climate. In J. L. Mahoney, J. Eccles, and R. Larson (Eds.), Organized Activities as Contexts of Development: Extracurricular Activities, After-School and Community Programs, Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers, 311-330.
[51]  Edwards, C., & Myers, S. A. (2007). Perceived Instructor Credibility as a Function of Instructor Aggressive Communication. Communication Research Reports, 24, 47-53.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824090601128141
[52]  Goodboy, A. K., & Myers, S. A. (2012). Instructional Dissent as an Expression of Students’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness Traits. Communication Education, 61, 448-458.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634523.2012.699635
[53]  Granero-Gallegos, A., Baena-Extremera, A., Gómez-López, M., & Abraldes, J. A. (2014). Importance of Physical Education: Motivation and Motivational Climate. Procedia— Social and Behavioral Sciences, 132, 364-370.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.323
[54]  Hamilton, M., & Hample, D. (2011). Testing Hierarchical Models of Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness. Communication Methods and Measures, 5, 250-273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19312458.2011.596991
[55]  Hasanagas, N., & Bekiari, A. (2015). Depicting Determinants and Effects of Intimacy and Verbal Aggressiveness Target through Social Network Analysis. Sociology Mind, 5, 162-175.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/sm.2015.53015
[56]  Hasanagas, N., & Bekiari, A. (2017a). An Exploration of the Relation between Hunting and Aggressiveness: Using Inmates Networks at Prison Secondary School as an Illustration. Social Networking, 6, 19-37.
https://doi.org/10.4236/sn.2017.61002
[57]  Hasanagas, N., & Bekiari, A. (2017b). Relation of Attitudes toward Environment and Animals with Social and Criminal-Aggressive Profile of Adult Inmates in School Classes of a Correctional Facility. International Journal of Social Research, 1-12.
[58]  Hasanagas, N., Bekiari, A., & Vasilos, P. (2017). Friendliness to Animals and Verbal Aggressiveness to People: Using Prison Inmates Education Networks as an Illustration. Social Networking, 6, 224-238.
https://doi.org/10.4236/sn.2017.63015
[59]  Hassandra, M., Bekiari, A., & Sakellariou, K. (2007). Physical Education Teacher’s Verbal Aggression and Student’s Fair Play Behaviors. The Physical Educator, 64, 94-101.
[60]  Hrázská, G. Z. (2011). Research of Aggression in the Relationship among Athletes in Figure Skating and Their Coaches. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 7, S1-S7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2012.7.Proc1.01
[61]  Infante, D. A. (1981). Trait Argumentativeness as a Predictor of Communicative Behavior in Situations Requiring Argument. Central States Speech Journal, 32, 265-272.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10510978109368105
[62]  Infante, D. A. (1987). Aggressiveness. In J. C. McCroskey, & J. A. Daly (Eds.), Personality and Interpersonal Communication (pp. 157-192). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
[63]  Infante, D. A. (1988). Arguing Constructively. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
[64]  Infante, D. A. (1995). Teaching Students to Understand and Control Verbal Aggression. Communication Education, 44, 51-63.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634529509378997
[65]  Infante, D. A., & Gorden, W. I. (1989). Argumentativeness and Affirming Communicator Style as Predictors of Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction with Subordinates. Communication Quarterly, 37, 81-90.
https://doi.org/10.1080/01463378909385529
[66]  Infante, D. A., & Rancer, A. S. (1982). A Conceptualization and Measure of Argumentativeness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 46, 72-80.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4601_13
[67]  Infante, D. A., & Rancer, A. S. (1993). Relations between Argumentative Motivation, and Advocacy and Refutation on Controversial Issues. Communication Quarterly, 41, 415-426.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463379309369902
[68]  Infante, D. A., & Rancer, A. S. (1996). Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness: A Review of Recent Theory and Research. Annals of the International Communication Association, 19, 319-352.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23808985.1996.11678934
[69]  Infante, D. A., & Wigley III, C. J. (1986). Verbal Aggressiveness: An Interpersonal Model and Measure. Communications Monographs, 53, 61-69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758609376126
[70]  Infante, D. A., Myers, S. A., & Buerkel, R. A. (1994). Argument and Verbal Aggression in Constructive and Destructive Family and Organizational Disagreements. Western Journal of Communication (Includes Communication Reports), 58, 73-84.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319409374488
[71]  Infante, D. A., Riddle, B. L., Horvath, C. L., & Tumlin, S. A. (1992). Verbal aggressiveness: Messages and reasons. Communication Quarterly, 40, 116-126.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463379209369827
[72]  Infante, D. A., Sabourin, T. C., Rudd, J. E., & Shannon, E. A. (1990). Verbal Aggression in Violent and Nonviolent Marital Disputes. Communication Quarterly, 38, 361-371.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463379009369773
[73]  Infante, D. A., Trebing, J. D., Shepherd, P. E., & Seeds, D. E. (1984). The Relationship of Argumentativeness to Verbal Aggression. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 50, 67-77.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417948409372622
[74]  Johnson, A. J., Becker, J. A., Wigley, S., Haigh, M. M., & Craig, E. A. (2007). Reported Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness Levels: The Influence of Type of Argument. Communication Studies, 58, 189-205.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510970701341154
[75]  Kavussanu, M., & Harnisch, D. L. (2000). Self-Esteem in Children: Do Goal Orientations Matter? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 229-242.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709900158074
[76]  Kavussanu, M., & Roberts, G. C. (1998). Motivation in Physical Activity Contexts: The Relationship of Perceived Motivational Climate to Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Efficacy. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 20, 264-280.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.20.3.264
[77]  Keegan, R. J., Harwood, C. G., Spray, C. M., & Lavallee, D. E. (2009). A Qualitative Investigation Exploring the Motivational Climate in Early Career Sports Participants: Coach, Parent and Peer Influences on Sport Motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 361-372.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.12.003
[78]  Keegan, R., Spray, C., Harwood, C., & Lavallee, D. (2010). The Motivational Atmosphere in Youth Sport: Coach, Parent, and Peer Influences on Motivation in Specializing Sport Participants. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22, 87-105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10413200903421267
[79]  Kim, Y., & Yang, J. (2013). Impact of Chemyeon on Koreans’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness. Korea Journal, 53, 48-77.
[80]  Konstantinidou, E., Michalopoulou, E., Aggelousis, N., & Kourtesis, T. (2011). Creativity in Elementary Physical Education: A Qualitative Approach of Teachers’ Perceptions. Inquiries in Sport & Physical Education, 9, 84-100.
[81]  Le Bars, H., Gernigon, C., & Ninot, G. (2009). Personal and Contextual Determinants of Elite Young Athletes’ Persistence or Dropping out over Time. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 19, 274-285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00786.x
[82]  Liukkonen, J., Barkoukis, V., Watt, A., & Jaakkola, T. (2010). Motivational Climate and Students’ Emotional Experiences and Effort in Physical Education. The Journal of Educational Research, 103, 295-308.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220670903383044
[83]  Maehr, M. L., & Nicholls, J. G. (1980). Culture and achievement Motivation: A Second look. In N. Warren (Eds.), Studies in Cross-Cultural Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 221-267). New York: Academic Press.
[84]  Manoli, P., & Bekiari, A. (2015). EFL Teachers’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Students’ Intrinsic Motivation and Social-Affective Strategy Use: Investigating Possible Relations. Advances in Research, 5, 1-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.9734/AIR/2015/19692
[85]  Martin, M. M., & Anderson, C. M. (1996). Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11, 547-554.
[86]  Martin, M. M., Anderson, C. A., & Thweatt, K. S. (1998). Aggressive Communication Traits and Their Relationships with the Cognitive Flexibility Scale and the Communication Flexibility Scale. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 13, 531-540.
[87]  Martin, M. M., Anderson, C. M., & Horvath, C. L. (1996). Feelings about Verbal Aggression: Justifications for Sending and Hurt from Receiving Verbally Aggressive Messages. Communication Research Reports, 13, 19-26.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824099609362066
[88]  Martin, M. M., Rocca, K. A., Cayanus, J. L., & Weber, K. (2009). Relationship between Coaches’ Use of Behavor Alteration Techniques and Verbal Aggression on Athletes’ Motivation and Affect. Journal of Sport Behavior, 32, 227-241.
[89]  Mazer, J. P., & Stowe, S. A. (2016). Can Teacher Immediacy Reduce the Impact of Verbal Aggressiveness? Examining Effects on Student Outcomes and Perceptions of Teacher Credibility. Western Journal of Communication, 80, 21-37.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570314.2014.943421
[90]  Mouratidis, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & Auweele, Y. V. (2009). Beyond Positive and Negative Affect: Achievement Goals and Discrete Emotions in the Elementary Physical Education Classroom. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 336-343.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.11.004
[91]  Murcia, J. A. M., Camacho, A. S., & Rodríguez, J. M. M. (2008). Prognostic of the Perceived Competence through Motivation in Practitioners of Physical Exercise. Fitness and Performance Journal, 7, 357-365.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3900/fpj.7.6.357.e
[92]  Myers, S. A. (1998). Instructor Socio-Communicative Style, Argumentativeness, and Verbal Aggressiveness in the College Classroom. Communication Research Reports, 15, 141-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824099809362108
[93]  Myers, S. A. (2002). Perceived Aggressive Instructor Communication and Student State Motivation, Learning and Satisfaction. Communication Reports, 15, 113-121.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08934210209367758
[94]  Myers, S. A., & Martin, M. M. (2006). Students’ Communication Traits and Their Out-of-Class Communication with Their Instructors. Communication Research Reports, 23, 283-289.
https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090600962599
[95]  Myers, S. A., & Rocca, K. A. (2000). The Relationship between Perceived Instructor Communicator Style, Argumentativeness, and Verbal Aggressiveness. Communication Research Reports, 17, 1-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824090009388745
[96]  Myers, S. A., & Rocca, K. A. (2001). Perceived Instructor Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness in the College Classroom: Effects on Student Perceptions of Climate, Apprehension, and State Motivation. Western Journal of Communication (Includes Communication Reports), 65, 113-137.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570310109374696
[97]  Myers, S. A., Brann, M., & Martin, M. M. (2013). Identifying the Content and Topics of Instructor Use of Verbally Aggressive Messages. Communication Research Reports, 30, 252-258.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824096.2013.806260
[98]  Myers, S. A., Edwards, C., Wahl, S. T., & Martin, M. M. (2007). The Relationship between Perceived Instructor Aggressive Communication and College Student Involvement. Communication Education, 56, 495-508.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634520701466398
[99]  Nerstad, C. G., Roberts, G. C., & Richardsen, A. M. (2013). Achieving Success at Work: Development and Validation of the Motivational Climate at Work Questionnaire (MCWQ). Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 2231-2250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12174
[100]  Neuman, J. H., & Baron, R. A. (1997). Aggression in the Workplace. Antisocial Behavior in Organizations, 37, 67.
[101]  Nicholls, J. (1984). Conceptions of Ability and Achievement Motivation. In R. Ames, & C. Ames (Eds.), Research on Motivation in Education: Student Motivation (Vol. 1, pp. 39-73). New York: Academic Press.
[102]  Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The Competitive Ethos and Democratic Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
[103]  Ntoumanis, N., & Biddle, S. J. (1999). A Review of Motivational Climate in Physical Activity. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 643-665.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026404199365678
[104]  Ommundsen, Y., & Kvalø, S. E. (2007). Autonomy-Mastery, Supportive or Performance Focused? Different Teacher Behaviours and Pupils’ Outcomes in Physical Education. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 51, 385-413.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00313830701485551
[105]  Onyekwere, E. O., Rubin, R. B., & Infante, D. A. (1991). Interpersonal Perception and Communication Satisfaction as a Function of Argumentativeness and Ego-Involvement. Communication Quarterly, 39, 35-47.
https://doi.org/10.1080/01463379109369781
[106]  Papaioannou, A. (1994). Development of a Questionnaire to Measure Achievement Orientations in Physical Education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65, 11-20.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1994.10762203
[107]  Papaioannou, A. (1995). Differential Perceptual and Motivational Patterns When Different Goals Are Adopted. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17, 18-34.
https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.17.1.18
[108]  Papaioannou, A. (1998). Goal Perspectives, Reasons for Being Disciplined, and Self-Reported Disciple in Physical Education Lessons. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 17, 421-441.
https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.17.4.421
[109]  Papaioannou, A., Marsh H. W., & Theodorakis, Y. (2004). A Multilevel Approach to Motivational Climate in Physical Education and Sport Settings: An Individual or a Group Level Construct. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 90-118.
https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.26.1.90
[110]  Rancer, A. S. and Infante, D. A. (1985) Relations between Motivation to Argue and Argumentativeness of Adversaries. Communication Quarterly, 33, 209-218.
https://doi.org/10.1080/01463378509369599
[111]  Rancer, A. S., & Avtgis, T. A. (2006). Argumentative and Aggressive Communication: Theory, Research, and Application. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
[112]  Rancer, A. S., & Avtgis, T. A. (2014). Argumentative and Aggressive Communication: Theory, Research, and Application (2nd ed.). New York: Peter Lang.
[113]  Rancer, A. S., Avtgis, T. A., Kosberg, R. L., Whitecap, V. G. (2000). A Longitudinal Assess-ment of Trait Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness between Seventh and Eighth Grades. Communication Education, 49, 114-119.
https://doi.org/10.1080/03634520009379197
[114]  Roach, K. D. (1992). Teacher Demographic Characteristics and Levels of Teacher Argumentativeness. Communication Research Reports, 9, 65-71.
https://doi.org/10.1080/08824099209359898
[115]  Roberts, G. C. (2012). Motivation in Sport and Exercise from an Achievement Goal Theory Perspective: After 30 Years, Where Are We? In G. Roberts, & D. Treasure (Eds.), Advances in Motivation in Sport and Exercise (3rd ed., pp. 5-58). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
[116]  Roberts, G. C., & Treasure, D. C. (1992). Children in Sport. Sport Science Review, 1, 46-64.
[117]  Roberts, G. C., Treasure, D., & Conroy, D. E. (2007). Understanding the Dynamics of Motivation in Sport and Physical Activity: An Achievement Goal Interpretation. In G. Tenenbaum, & R. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of Sport Psychology (3rd ed., pp. 3-30). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118270011.ch1
[118]  Rocca, K. A. (2004). College Student Attendance: Impact of Instructor Immediacy and Verbal Aggression. Communication Education, 53, 185-195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634520410001682447
[119]  Schrodt, P. (2003). Student Perceptions of Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness: The Influence of Student Verbal Aggressiveness and Self-Esteem. Communication Research Reports, 20, 240-250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824090309388822
[120]  Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Cumming, S. P. (2007). Effects of a Motivational Climate Intervention for Coaches on Young Athletes’ Sport Performance Anxiety. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29, 39-59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.29.1.39
[121]  Snyder, J., Forbus, R., & Cistulli, M. (2012). Attendance Policies, Student Attendance, and Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness. Journal of Education for Business, 87, 145-151.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2011.582192
[122]  Spittle, M., & Byrne, K. (2009). The Influence of Sport Education on Student Motivation in Physical Education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 14, 253-266.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17408980801995239
[123]  Standage, M., & Gillison, F. (2007). Students’ Motivational Responses toward School Physical Education and Their Relationship to General Self-Esteem and Health-Related Quality of Life. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 704-721.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.12.004
[124]  Syrmpas, I., & Bekiari, A. (2015). The Relationship between Perceived Physical Education Teacher’s Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness with Students’ Interpersonal Attraction. Inquiries in Sport & Physical Education, 13, 21-32.
[125]  Theodosiou, A., Mantis, K., & Papaioannou, A. (2008). Student Self-Reports of Metacognitive Activity in Physical Education Classes. Age-Group Differences and the Effect of Goal Orientations and Perceived Motivational Climate. Educational Research and Review, 3, 353-364.
[126]  Theoharis, D., & Bekiari, A. (2017). Applying Social Network Indicators in the Analysis of Verbal Aggressiveness at the School. Journal of Computer and Communications, 5, 169-181.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jcc.2017.57015
[127]  Theoharis, D., & Bekiari, A. (2018). Dynamic Analysis of Verbal Aggressiveness Networks in School. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 16, 14-28.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2018.61002
[128]  Theoharis, D., Bekiari, A., & Koustelios, A. (2017). Exploration of Determinants of Verbal Aggressiveness and Leadership through Network Analysis and Conventional Statistics. Using School Class as an Illustration. Sociology Mind, 7, 27-43.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/sm.2017.72003
[129]  Treasure, D. C., & Roberts, G. C. (1995). Applications of Achievement Goal Theory to Physical Education: Implications for Enhancing Motivation. Quest, 47, 475-489.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1995.10484170
[130]  Van De Pol, P. K. C., Kavussanu, M., & Ring, C. (2012). Goal Orientations, Perceived Motivational Climate, and Motivational Outcomes in Football: A Comparison between Training and Competition Contexts. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 491-499.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.12.002
[131]  Vazou, S., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J. L. (2005). Peer Motivational Climate in Youth Sport: A Qualitative Inquiry. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 497-516.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2004.03.005
[132]  Weiss, M. R., Amorose, A. J., & Wilko, A. M. (2009). Coaching Behaviors, Motivational Climate, and Psychosocial Outcomes among Female Adolescent Athletes. Pediatric exercise science, 21, 475-492.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/pes.21.4.475
[133]  Weiss, S., & Houser, M. (2007). Student Communication Motives and Interpersonal Attraction toward Instructor. Communication Research Reports, 3, 215-224.
https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090701439091
[134]  Wigley, C. J. III, Pohl, G. H., & Watt, M. G. S. (1989). Conversational Sensitivity as a Correlate of Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and the Predisposition to Verbally Praise Others. Communication Reports, 2, 92-95.
https://doi.org/10.1080/08934218909367488
[135]  Wrench, J. S., & Punyanunt-Carter, N. M. (2005). Advisor-Advisee Communication Two: The Influence of Verbal Aggression and Humor Assessment on Advisee Perceptions of Advisor Credibility and Affective Learning. Communication Research Reports, 22, 303-313.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/000368105000317599

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus