The purpose of this study was to examine verbal aggressiveness, argumentativeness and motivation climate in a multi-parametric context. Nine hundred and three (903) students (448 males, 455 females), whose age varied from 10 to 17 years old (M = 13.8, SD = 2.3), participated in this study. The findings revealed that instructors’ verbal aggressiveness was positively related to performance climate and negatively to argumentativeness and mastery climate, while argumentativeness was positively related to mastery climate. Additionally, the multiple regression analysis presented that argumentativeness and the created motivational climate were negative predictors of verbal aggressiveness. High school students perceive their instructor more argumentative and reported the lower score on performance climate. Urban schools presented higher levels on verbal aggressiveness and performance climate. Students from 9th grade proved to have higher score in verbal aggressiveness, 7th grade in argumentativeness and mastery climate. Finally, students from 6th grade perceived that their instructors created performance climate in higher levels. Furthermore, Mancova indicated that the covariates, mastery and performance climate explained a statistically significant proportion of variance of verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness between classes. Moreover, instructors who use low level of verbal aggressiveness proved to have higher score in argumentativeness and mastery climate. Also, high level of verbal aggressiveness was presented in performance climate. Finally, Ancova reported that argumentativeness was a significant covariate of verbal aggressiveness on performance climate.
Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement Goals in the Classroom: Students’ Learning Strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 260-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.1990
Atkins, M. R., Johnson, D. M., Force, E. C., & Petrie, T. A. (2015). Peers, Parents, and Coaches, Oh My! The Relation of the Motivational Climate to Boys’ Intention to Continue in Sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 170-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.10.008
Avtgis, T. A., Rancer, A. S., Kanjeva, P. A., & Chory, R. M. (2008). Argumentative and Aggressive Communication in Bulgaria: Testing for Conceptual and Methodological Equivalence. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 37, 17-24. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475750802077354
Bekiari, A. (2012). Perceptions of Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Physical Education Students’ Affective Learning. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 115, 325-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/06.11.16.PMS.115.4.325-335
Bekiari, A. (2014). Verbal Aggressiveness and Leadership Style of Sports Instructors and their Relationship with Athletes’ Intrinsic Motivation. Creative Education, 5, 114-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ce.2014.52018
Bekiari, A. (2016). Insights into Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Students’ Machiavellianism through Leadership Style and Motivational Climate. European Scientific Journal, 12, 90-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.19044/esj.2016.v12n25p90
Bekiari, A. (2017a). Exploring Relations between Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness and Students’ Fair Play Behaviours and Machiavellianism. International Journal of Physical Education, 54, 26-39.
Bekiari, A., & Balla, K. (2017). Instructors and Students Relations: Argumentativeness, Leadership and Goal Orientations. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 128-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2017.57009
Bekiari, A., & Hasanagas, N. (2015). Verbal Aggressiveness Exploration through Complete Social Network Analysis: Using Physical Education Students’ Class as an Illustration. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 3, 30-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.11114/ijsss.v3i3.729
Bekiari, A., & Hasanagas, N. (2016c). Suggesting Indicators of Superficiality and Purity in Verbal Aggressiveness: An Application in Adult Education Class Networks of Prisoners. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 279-292. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.43035
Bekiari, A., & Manoli, P. (2016). EFL Teacher Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness and Student Socio-Affective Strategy Use and Affective Learning: Exploring Possible Associations. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 5, 154-171.
Bekiari, A., & Ntakou, V. (2018). Insights to Argumentativeness in Relation to Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction: Using Employees’ Sport Organizations as an Illustration. Open Journal of Leadership. (In Press)
Bekiari, A., & Pachi, V. (2017). Insights into Bullying and Verbal Aggressiveness through Social Network Analysis. Journal of Computer and Communications, 5, 79-101. https://doi.org/10.4236/jcc.2017.59006
Bekiari, A., & Petanidis, D. (2016). Exploring Teachers’ Verbal Aggressiveness through Interpersonal Attraction and Students’ Intrinsic Motivation. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 72-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.412007
Bekiari, A., & Pylarinou, M. (2017). Instructor Argumentativeness and Socio-Communicative Style and Student Discipline: Using Physical Education Students’ Class as an Illustration. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 122-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2017.53011
Bekiari, A., & Spyropoulou, S. (2016). Exploration of Verbal Aggressiveness and Interpersonal Attraction through Social Network Analysis: Using University Physical Education Class as an Illustration. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 145-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.46016
Bekiari, A., & Syrmpas, I. (2015). Coaches’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Motivational Climate as Predictors of Athletes’ Satisfaction. British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 9, 318-329. http://dx.doi:10.9734/BJESBS/2015/17757
Bekiari, A., & Tsiana, I. (2016). Exploring Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Students’ Personal Orientations and Reasons of Discipline in Physical Education Class. Advances in Physical Education, 6, 158-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ape.2016.63018
Bekiari, A., Digelidis, N., & Sakellariou, K. (2006). Perceived Verbal Aggressiveness of Coaches in Volleyball and Basketball: A Preliminary Study. Psychological Reports, 103, 526-530. http://dx.doi:10.2466/PMS.103.2.526-530
Bekiari, A., Kokaridas, D., & Sakellariou, K. (2005). Verbal Aggressiveness of Physical Education Teachers and Students’ Self-Reports of Behaviour. Psychological Reports, 96, 493-498. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.96.2.493-498
Bekiari, A., Kokaridas, D., & Sakellariou, K. (2006). Associations of Students’ Self-Reports of Their Teacher’s Verbal Aggression, Intrinsic Motivation, and Perceptions of Reasons for Discipline in Greek Physical Education Classes. Psychological Reports, 98, 451-461. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/PR0.98.2.451-461
Bekiari, A., Nikolaidou, Z., & Hasanagas, N. (2017). Typology of Motivation and Aggression on the Basis of Social Network Variables: Examples of Complementary and Nested Behavioral Types through Conventional Statistics. Social Networking, 6, 135-147. https://doi.org/10.4236/sn.2017.62008
Bekiari, A., Pachi, V., & Hasanagas, N. (2017). Investigating Bullying Determinants and Typologies with Social Network Analysis. Journal of Computer and Communications, 5, 11-27. https://doi.org/10.4236/jcc.2017.57002
Bekiari, A., Patsiaouras, A., Kokaridas, D., & Sakellariou, K. (2006). Verbal Aggressiveness and State Anxiety of Volleyball Players and Coaches. Psychological Reports, 99, 630-634. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.99.2.630-634
Bekiari, A., Perkos, S., & Gerodimos, V. (2015). Verbal Aggression in Basketball: Perceived Coach Use and Athlete Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 15, 96-102. http://dx.doi:10.7752/jpes.2015.01016
Bengoechea, E. G., & Strean, W. B. (2007). On the Interpersonal Context of Adolescents’ Sport Motivation. Psychology of sport and exercise, 8, 195-217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.03.004
Bortoli, L., Bertollo, M., Vitali, F., Filho, E., & Robazza, C. (2015). The Effects of Motivational Climate Interventions on Psychobiosocial States in High School Physical Education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 86, 196-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2014.999189
Braithwaite, R., Spray, C. M., & Warburton, V. E. (2011). Motivational Climate Interventions in Physical Education: A Meta-Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 628-638. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.06.005
Cumming, S. P., Smoll, F. L., Smith, R. E., & Grossbard, J. R. (2007). Is Winning Everything? The Relative Contributions of Motivational Climate and Won-Lost Percentage in Youth Sports. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19, 322-336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10413200701342640
Cunningham, G. B., & Xiang, P. (2008). Testing the Mediating Role of Perceived Motivational Climate in the Relationship between Achievement Goals and Satisfaction: Are These Relationships Invariant across Sex? Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 27, 192-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.27.2.192
Deliligka, S., Bekiari, A., & Syrmpas, I. (2017). Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness in Physical Education: Perceptions of Teachers and Students in Qualitative and Quantitative Exploration. Psychology, 8, 1693-1717. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2017.811112
Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2005). After-School Sport for Children: Implications of a Task-Involving Motivational Climate. In J. L. Mahoney, J. Eccles, and R. Larson (Eds.), Organized Activities as Contexts of Development: Extracurricular Activities, After-School and Community Programs, Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers, 311-330.
Edwards, C., & Myers, S. A. (2007). Perceived Instructor Credibility as a Function of Instructor Aggressive Communication. Communication Research Reports, 24, 47-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824090601128141
Goodboy, A. K., & Myers, S. A. (2012). Instructional Dissent as an Expression of Students’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness Traits. Communication Education, 61, 448-458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634523.2012.699635
Granero-Gallegos, A., Baena-Extremera, A., Gómez-López, M., & Abraldes, J. A. (2014). Importance of Physical Education: Motivation and Motivational Climate. Procedia— Social and Behavioral Sciences, 132, 364-370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.323
Hamilton, M., & Hample, D. (2011). Testing Hierarchical Models of Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness. Communication Methods and Measures, 5, 250-273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19312458.2011.596991
Hasanagas, N., & Bekiari, A. (2015). Depicting Determinants and Effects of Intimacy and Verbal Aggressiveness Target through Social Network Analysis. Sociology Mind, 5, 162-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/sm.2015.53015
Hasanagas, N., & Bekiari, A. (2017a). An Exploration of the Relation between Hunting and Aggressiveness: Using Inmates Networks at Prison Secondary School as an Illustration. Social Networking, 6, 19-37. https://doi.org/10.4236/sn.2017.61002
Hasanagas, N., & Bekiari, A. (2017b). Relation of Attitudes toward Environment and Animals with Social and Criminal-Aggressive Profile of Adult Inmates in School Classes of a Correctional Facility. International Journal of Social Research, 1-12.
Hasanagas, N., Bekiari, A., & Vasilos, P. (2017). Friendliness to Animals and Verbal Aggressiveness to People: Using Prison Inmates Education Networks as an Illustration. Social Networking, 6, 224-238. https://doi.org/10.4236/sn.2017.63015
Hrázská, G. Z. (2011). Research of Aggression in the Relationship among Athletes in Figure Skating and Their Coaches. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 7, S1-S7. http://dx.doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2012.7.Proc1.01
Infante, D. A. (1981). Trait Argumentativeness as a Predictor of Communicative Behavior in Situations Requiring Argument. Central States Speech Journal, 32, 265-272. https://doi.org/10.1080/10510978109368105
Infante, D. A., & Gorden, W. I. (1989). Argumentativeness and Affirming Communicator Style as Predictors of Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction with Subordinates. Communication Quarterly, 37, 81-90. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463378909385529
Infante, D. A., & Rancer, A. S. (1993). Relations between Argumentative Motivation, and Advocacy and Refutation on Controversial Issues. Communication Quarterly, 41, 415-426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463379309369902
Infante, D. A., & Rancer, A. S. (1996). Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness: A Review of Recent Theory and Research. Annals of the International Communication Association, 19, 319-352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23808985.1996.11678934
Infante, D. A., Myers, S. A., & Buerkel, R. A. (1994). Argument and Verbal Aggression in Constructive and Destructive Family and Organizational Disagreements. Western Journal of Communication (Includes Communication Reports), 58, 73-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319409374488
Infante, D. A., Sabourin, T. C., Rudd, J. E., & Shannon, E. A. (1990). Verbal Aggression in Violent and Nonviolent Marital Disputes. Communication Quarterly, 38, 361-371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463379009369773
Infante, D. A., Trebing, J. D., Shepherd, P. E., & Seeds, D. E. (1984). The Relationship of Argumentativeness to Verbal Aggression. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 50, 67-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417948409372622
Johnson, A. J., Becker, J. A., Wigley, S., Haigh, M. M., & Craig, E. A. (2007). Reported Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness Levels: The Influence of Type of Argument. Communication Studies, 58, 189-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510970701341154
Kavussanu, M., & Roberts, G. C. (1998). Motivation in Physical Activity Contexts: The Relationship of Perceived Motivational Climate to Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Efficacy. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 20, 264-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.20.3.264
Keegan, R. J., Harwood, C. G., Spray, C. M., & Lavallee, D. E. (2009). A Qualitative Investigation Exploring the Motivational Climate in Early Career Sports Participants: Coach, Parent and Peer Influences on Sport Motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 361-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.12.003
Keegan, R., Spray, C., Harwood, C., & Lavallee, D. (2010). The Motivational Atmosphere in Youth Sport: Coach, Parent, and Peer Influences on Motivation in Specializing Sport Participants. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22, 87-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10413200903421267
Konstantinidou, E., Michalopoulou, E., Aggelousis, N., & Kourtesis, T. (2011). Creativity in Elementary Physical Education: A Qualitative Approach of Teachers’ Perceptions. Inquiries in Sport & Physical Education, 9, 84-100.
Le Bars, H., Gernigon, C., & Ninot, G. (2009). Personal and Contextual Determinants of Elite Young Athletes’ Persistence or Dropping out over Time. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 19, 274-285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00786.x
Liukkonen, J., Barkoukis, V., Watt, A., & Jaakkola, T. (2010). Motivational Climate and Students’ Emotional Experiences and Effort in Physical Education. The Journal of Educational Research, 103, 295-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220670903383044
Martin, M. M., Anderson, C. A., & Thweatt, K. S. (1998). Aggressive Communication Traits and Their Relationships with the Cognitive Flexibility Scale and the Communication Flexibility Scale. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 13, 531-540.
Martin, M. M., Anderson, C. M., & Horvath, C. L. (1996). Feelings about Verbal Aggression: Justifications for Sending and Hurt from Receiving Verbally Aggressive Messages. Communication Research Reports, 13, 19-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824099609362066
Martin, M. M., Rocca, K. A., Cayanus, J. L., & Weber, K. (2009). Relationship between Coaches’ Use of Behavor Alteration Techniques and Verbal Aggression on Athletes’ Motivation and Affect. Journal of Sport Behavior, 32, 227-241.
Mazer, J. P., & Stowe, S. A. (2016). Can Teacher Immediacy Reduce the Impact of Verbal Aggressiveness? Examining Effects on Student Outcomes and Perceptions of Teacher Credibility. Western Journal of Communication, 80, 21-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570314.2014.943421
Mouratidis, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & Auweele, Y. V. (2009). Beyond Positive and Negative Affect: Achievement Goals and Discrete Emotions in the Elementary Physical Education Classroom. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 336-343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.11.004
Murcia, J. A. M., Camacho, A. S., & Rodríguez, J. M. M. (2008). Prognostic of the Perceived Competence through Motivation in Practitioners of Physical Exercise. Fitness and Performance Journal, 7, 357-365. http://dx.doi.org/10.3900/fpj.7.6.357.e
Myers, S. A. (1998). Instructor Socio-Communicative Style, Argumentativeness, and Verbal Aggressiveness in the College Classroom. Communication Research Reports, 15, 141-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824099809362108
Myers, S. A. (2002). Perceived Aggressive Instructor Communication and Student State Motivation, Learning and Satisfaction. Communication Reports, 15, 113-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08934210209367758
Myers, S. A., & Martin, M. M. (2006). Students’ Communication Traits and Their Out-of-Class Communication with Their Instructors. Communication Research Reports, 23, 283-289. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090600962599
Myers, S. A., & Rocca, K. A. (2000). The Relationship between Perceived Instructor Communicator Style, Argumentativeness, and Verbal Aggressiveness. Communication Research Reports, 17, 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824090009388745
Myers, S. A., & Rocca, K. A. (2001). Perceived Instructor Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness in the College Classroom: Effects on Student Perceptions of Climate, Apprehension, and State Motivation. Western Journal of Communication (Includes Communication Reports), 65, 113-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570310109374696
Myers, S. A., Brann, M., & Martin, M. M. (2013). Identifying the Content and Topics of Instructor Use of Verbally Aggressive Messages. Communication Research Reports, 30, 252-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824096.2013.806260
Myers, S. A., Edwards, C., Wahl, S. T., & Martin, M. M. (2007). The Relationship between Perceived Instructor Aggressive Communication and College Student Involvement. Communication Education, 56, 495-508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634520701466398
Nerstad, C. G., Roberts, G. C., & Richardsen, A. M. (2013). Achieving Success at Work: Development and Validation of the Motivational Climate at Work Questionnaire (MCWQ). Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 2231-2250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12174
Nicholls, J. (1984). Conceptions of Ability and Achievement Motivation. In R. Ames, & C. Ames (Eds.), Research on Motivation in Education: Student Motivation (Vol. 1, pp. 39-73). New York: Academic Press.
Ommundsen, Y., & Kvalø, S. E. (2007). Autonomy-Mastery, Supportive or Performance Focused? Different Teacher Behaviours and Pupils’ Outcomes in Physical Education. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 51, 385-413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00313830701485551
Onyekwere, E. O., Rubin, R. B., & Infante, D. A. (1991). Interpersonal Perception and Communication Satisfaction as a Function of Argumentativeness and Ego-Involvement. Communication Quarterly, 39, 35-47. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463379109369781
Papaioannou, A. (1994). Development of a Questionnaire to Measure Achievement Orientations in Physical Education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65, 11-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1994.10762203
Papaioannou, A. (1998). Goal Perspectives, Reasons for Being Disciplined, and Self-Reported Disciple in Physical Education Lessons. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 17, 421-441. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.17.4.421
Papaioannou, A., Marsh H. W., & Theodorakis, Y. (2004). A Multilevel Approach to Motivational Climate in Physical Education and Sport Settings: An Individual or a Group Level Construct. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 90-118. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.26.1.90
Rancer, A. S., Avtgis, T. A., Kosberg, R. L., Whitecap, V. G. (2000). A Longitudinal Assess-ment of Trait Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness between Seventh and Eighth Grades. Communication Education, 49, 114-119. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634520009379197
Roberts, G. C. (2012). Motivation in Sport and Exercise from an Achievement Goal Theory Perspective: After 30 Years, Where Are We? In G. Roberts, & D. Treasure (Eds.), Advances in Motivation in Sport and Exercise (3rd ed., pp. 5-58). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Roberts, G. C., Treasure, D., & Conroy, D. E. (2007). Understanding the Dynamics of Motivation in Sport and Physical Activity: An Achievement Goal Interpretation. In G. Tenenbaum, & R. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of Sport Psychology (3rd ed., pp. 3-30). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118270011.ch1
Schrodt, P. (2003). Student Perceptions of Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness: The Influence of Student Verbal Aggressiveness and Self-Esteem. Communication Research Reports, 20, 240-250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824090309388822
Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Cumming, S. P. (2007). Effects of a Motivational Climate Intervention for Coaches on Young Athletes’ Sport Performance Anxiety. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29, 39-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.29.1.39
Snyder, J., Forbus, R., & Cistulli, M. (2012). Attendance Policies, Student Attendance, and Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness. Journal of Education for Business, 87, 145-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2011.582192
Spittle, M., & Byrne, K. (2009). The Influence of Sport Education on Student Motivation in Physical Education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 14, 253-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17408980801995239
Standage, M., & Gillison, F. (2007). Students’ Motivational Responses toward School Physical Education and Their Relationship to General Self-Esteem and Health-Related Quality of Life. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 704-721. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.12.004
Syrmpas, I., & Bekiari, A. (2015). The Relationship between Perceived Physical Education Teacher’s Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness with Students’ Interpersonal Attraction. Inquiries in Sport & Physical Education, 13, 21-32.
Theodosiou, A., Mantis, K., & Papaioannou, A. (2008). Student Self-Reports of Metacognitive Activity in Physical Education Classes. Age-Group Differences and the Effect of Goal Orientations and Perceived Motivational Climate. Educational Research and Review, 3, 353-364.
Theoharis, D., & Bekiari, A. (2017). Applying Social Network Indicators in the Analysis of Verbal Aggressiveness at the School. Journal of Computer and Communications, 5, 169-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jcc.2017.57015
Theoharis, D., Bekiari, A., & Koustelios, A. (2017). Exploration of Determinants of Verbal Aggressiveness and Leadership through Network Analysis and Conventional Statistics. Using School Class as an Illustration. Sociology Mind, 7, 27-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/sm.2017.72003
Treasure, D. C., & Roberts, G. C. (1995). Applications of Achievement Goal Theory to Physical Education: Implications for Enhancing Motivation. Quest, 47, 475-489. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1995.10484170
Van De Pol, P. K. C., Kavussanu, M., & Ring, C. (2012). Goal Orientations, Perceived Motivational Climate, and Motivational Outcomes in Football: A Comparison between Training and Competition Contexts. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 491-499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.12.002
Vazou, S., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J. L. (2005). Peer Motivational Climate in Youth Sport: A Qualitative Inquiry. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 497-516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2004.03.005
Weiss, M. R., Amorose, A. J., & Wilko, A. M. (2009). Coaching Behaviors, Motivational Climate, and Psychosocial Outcomes among Female Adolescent Athletes. Pediatric exercise science, 21, 475-492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/pes.21.4.475
Wigley, C. J. III, Pohl, G. H., & Watt, M. G. S. (1989). Conversational Sensitivity as a Correlate of Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and the Predisposition to Verbally Praise Others. Communication Reports, 2, 92-95. https://doi.org/10.1080/08934218909367488
Wrench, J. S., & Punyanunt-Carter, N. M. (2005). Advisor-Advisee Communication Two: The Influence of Verbal Aggression and Humor Assessment on Advisee Perceptions of Advisor Credibility and Affective Learning. Communication Research Reports, 22, 303-313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/000368105000317599