All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

A Routine Activity Approach: Assessing Victimization by Gender in Transit Environments and Other Public Locations

DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.81004, PP. 56-75

Keywords: Gender Gap in Crime, Gender, Transit Environments, Public Spaces, Routine Activity Theory

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


The purpose of this research is to examine how transit environments and other public spaces shape women’s and men’s victimization for simple assault, aggravated assault, sexual assault, robbery, and kidnapping crimes. This research applies routine activities theory to examine how everyday activities shape victimization within these environments. Using data from the Federal Bureau of Investigations’ 2014 National Incident-Based Reporting System, this research finds that women were more likely to be victimized in certain spaces such as shopping centers and transit terminals. Regarding certain violent crimes, it was also discovered that women were more likely to be robbed at shopping centers, grocery stores, parking lots/garages, and transit terminals. It is argued that understanding the vulnerability of simple assault, aggravated assault, sexual assault, robbery, and kidnapping victimization women have in transit environments and other public spaces may provide useful insight regarding preventing crime in these locations.


[1]  Addington, L. A. (2007). Using NIBRS to Study Methodological Sources of Divergence between the UCR and NCVS. In J. P. Lynch, & L. A. Addington (Eds.), Understanding Crime Statistics: Revisiting the Divergence of the NCVS and UCR (pp. 225-250). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
[2]  American Public Transportation Association (2007). Public Transportation: Benefits for the 21st Century.
[3]  American Public Transportation Association (2015). Public Transportation Fact Book.
[4]  Angel, S. (1968). Discouraging Crime through City Planning. Berkley, CA: University of California.
[5]  Bachman, R. D., & Paternoster, R. (2009). Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice. London: SAGE Publications.
[6]  Batton, C. (2004). Gender Differences in Lethal Violence: Historical Trends in the Relationship between Homicide and Suicide Rates, 1960-2000. Justice Quarterly, 3, 423-461.
[7]  Block, R., & Block, C. R. (2000) The Bronx and Chicago: Street Robbery in the Environs of Rapid Transit Stations. In V. Goldsmith et al. (Eds.), Analyzing Crime Patterns: Frontiers in Practice (pp. 137-152). New York, NY: Sage.
[8]  Block, R., & Davis, S. (1996). The Environs of Rapid Transit Stations: A Focus for Street Crime or Just Another Risky Place. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Preventing Mass Transit Crime (pp. 237-257). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
[9]  Brantingham, P. L., & Brantingham, P. J. (1993). Nodes, Paths and Edges: Considerations on the Complexity of Crime and the Physical Environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 1, 3-28.
[10]  Brantingham, P. L., Brantingham, P. J., & Wong, P. (1990). Malls and Crime: A First Look. Security Journal, 3, 175-181.
[11]  Brantingham, P., & Brantingham, P. (1995). Criminality of Place: Crime Generators and Crime Attractors. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 3, 5-26.
[12]  Browne, A., & Williams, K. R. (1993). Gender, Intimacy, and Lethal Violence: Trends from 1976 through 1987. Gender & Society, 7, 8-98.
[13]  Caplan, J. M., Kennedy, L. W., & Piza, E. L. (2012). Integrating Spatial Crime Analysis Techniques for Tactical Strategies Actions (pp. 1-5). Rutgers Center on Public Security Brief.
[14]  Ceccato, V. (2014). Safety on the Move: Crime and Perceived Safety in Transit Environments. Security Journal, 27, 127-131.
[15]  Ceccato, V. (2016). Public Space and the Situational Conditions of Crime and Fear. International Criminal Justice Review, 26, 69-79.
[16]  Chekroun, P., & Brauer, M. (2002). The Bystander Effect and Social Control Behavior: The Effect of the Presence of Others on People’s Reactions to Norm Violations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 853-867.
[17]  Clarke, R. V., & Eck, J. E. (2007). Understanding Risky Facilities: Tool Guide No. 6. Washington DC: Center for Problem-Oriented Policing.
[18]  Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588-608.
[19]  Cook, K. J. (2016). Has Criminology Awakened from Its “Androcentric Slumber”? Feminist Criminology, 11, 334-353.
[20]  Eck, J. E. (1994). Drug Markets and Drug Places: A Case-Control Study of the Spatial Structure of Illicit Drug Dealing. Doctoral Dissertation, Research Directed by Institute of Criminal Justice and Criminology, University of Maryland at College Park.
[21]  Eck, J. E., & Wartell, J. (1998). Improving the Management of Rental Properties with Drug Problems: A Randomized Experiment. Crime Prevention Studies, 9, 161-185.
[22]  Farrington, D. P., & Welsh, B. C. (2002). Effects of Improved Street Lighting on Crime: A Systematic Review. London: Home Office.
[23]  Federal Bureau of Investigation (2014). Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR): National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS).
[24]  Felson, R. B., & Messner, S. F. (1996). To Kill or Not to Kill? Lethal Outcomes in Injurious Attacks. Criminology, 34, 519-545.
[25]  Fisher, B. S., & Nasar, J. L. (1992). Fear of Crime in Relation to Three Exterior Site Features: Prospect, Refuge, and Escape. Environment and Behavior, 24, 35-65.
[26]  Gartner, R. (1990). The Victims of Homicide: A Temporal and Cross-National Comparison. American Sociological Review, 55, 92-106.
[27]  Glasner, P., & Leitner, M. (2016). Evaluating the Impact the Weekday Has on Near-Repeat Victimization: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Street Robberies in the City of Vienna, Austria. International Journal of Geo-Information, 6, 1-18.
[28]  Goldstein, H. (1990). Problem-Oriented Policing. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
[29]  Hart, T. C., & Miethe, T. D. (2014) Street Robbery and Public Bus Stops: A Case Study of Activity Nodes and Situational Risk. Security Journal, 27, 180-193.
[30]  Hoel, L. A. (1992). Public Transportation Security. In G. Gray, & L. Hoel (Eds.), Public Transportation (pp. 509-524). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[31]  Kooi, B. R. (2013). Assessing the Correlation between Bus Stop Densities and Residential Crime Typologies. Crime Prevention & Community Safety, 15, 81-105.
[32]  Langton, L., Planty, M., & Truman, J. (2013). Criminal Victimization, 2012.
[33]  Lauritsen, J. L., & Heimer, K. (2008).The Gender Gap in Violent Victimization, 1973-2004. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 24, 125-147.
[34]  Lauritsen, J. L., & Rezey, M. L. (2013). Measuring the Prevalence of Crime with the National Crime Victimization Survey. Washington DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.
[35]  Laycock, G., & Austin, C. (1992). Crime Prevention in Parking Facilities. Security Journal, 3, 154-160.
[36]  Loukaitou-Sideris, A. (1999). Hot Spots of Bus Stop Crime: The Importance of Environmental Attributes. Journal of the American Planning Association, 65, 395-411.
[37]  Loukaitou-Sideris, A. (2014). Fear and Safety in Transit Environments from the Women’s Perspective. Security Journal, 27, 242-256.
[38]  Madan, M., & Nalla, M. K. (2016). Sexual Harassment in Public Spaces: Examining Gender Differences in Perceived Seriousness and Victimization. International Criminal Justice Review, 26, 80-97.
[39]  Madensen, T. D., & Eck, J. E. (2008). Violence in Bars: Exploring the Impact of Place Manager Decision-Making. Crime Prevention & Community Safety, 10, 111-125.
[40]  Marvell, T. B., & Moody, C. E. (1999). Female and Male Homicide Victimization Rates: Comparing Trends and Regressors. Criminology, 37, 879-902.
[41]  Mazerolle, L. G., & Roehl, J. (1998). Civil Remedies and Crime Prevention (Vol. 9). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
[42]  Mazerolle, L. G., Kadleck, C., & Roehl, J. (1998). Controlling Drug and Disorder Problems: The Role of Place Managers. Criminology, 36, 371-404.
[43]  Mazerolle, L., & Ransley, J. (2006). Third Party Policing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[44]  Miller, J. (1998). Up It Up: Gender and the Accomplishment of Street Robbery. Criminology, 36, 37-66.
[45]  Monahan, J., & Walker, L. (1990). Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials. Westbury, NY: Foundation Press.
[46]  Newman, O. (1973). Defensible Space: Crime Prevention through Urban Design. New York, NY: Collier.
[47]  Newton, A. D., Partridge, H., & Gill, A. (2014). In and Around: Identifying Predictors of Theft within and near to Major Mass Underground Transit Systems. Security Journal, 27, 132-146.
[48]  O’Connor, P. J. (1977). Nuisance Abatement Law as a Solution to New York City’s Problem of Illegal Sex Related Businesses in the Mid-Town Area. Fordham Law Review, 46, 57-90.
[49]  Phillips, P. D. (1980). Characteristics and Typology of the Journey to Crime. In D. Georges-Abeyie, & K. Harries (Eds.), Crime: A Spatial Perspective (pp. 156-166). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
[50]  Pizarro, J. M., DeJong, C., & McGarrell, E. F. (2010). An Examination of the Covariates of Female Homicide Victimization and Offending. Feminist Criminology, 5, 51-72.
[51]  Pridemore, W. A., & Freilich, J. D. (2005). Gender Equity, Traditional Masculine Culture, and Female Homicide Victimization. Journal of Criminal Justice, 33, 213-223.
[52]  Roman, C. G. (2005). Routine Activities of Youth and Neighborhood Violence: Spatial Modeling of Place, Time, and Crime. In F. Wang (Ed.), Geographic Information Systems and Crime Analysis (pp. 293-310). Hershey, PA: Idea Group.
[53]  Sampson, R., Eck, J. E., & Dunham, J. (2010). Super Controllers and Crime Prevention: A Routine Activity Explanation of Crime Prevention Success and Failure. Security Journal, 23, 37-51.
[54]  Savard, D. M., & Kennedy, D. B. (2013). Responding to Intimate Partner Violence in the Workplace. Security Journal, 26, 249-263.
[55]  Savard, D. M., & Kennedy, D. B. (2014). Crime and Security Liability Concerns at Shopping Centers. In K. Walby, & R. Lippert (Eds.), Corporate Security in the 21st Century (pp. 254-275). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
[56]  Savard, D. M., Kelley, T. M., & Merolla, D. M. (2017). Routine Activities and Criminal Victimization: The Significance of Gendered Spaces. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.
[57]  Sedelmaier, C. M. (2014). Offender-Target Redistribution on a New Public Transport System. Security Journal, 27, 164-179.
[58]  Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1972). Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas (Rev. ed.). Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
[59]  Shibata, S., Hanyu, K., Hata, T. D., & Yamaoka, Y. (2014). Expectation and Perception of Crime and Disorder Events in Railway Stations in Tokyo. Security Journal, 27, 210-225.
[60]  Smith, M. D., & Brewer, V. E. (1992). A Sex-Specific Analysis of Correlates of Homicide Victimization in United States Cities. Violence and Victims, 7, 279-286.
[61]  Smith, M. D., & Brewer, V. E. (1995). Female Status and the “Gender Gap” in US Homicide Victimization. Violence against Women, 1, 339-350.
[62]  Spain, D. (1992). Gendered Spaces. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
[63]  Telep, C. W., & Weisburd, D. (2012). What Is Known about the Effectiveness of Police Practices in Reducing Crime and Disorder? Police Quarterly, 15, 331-357.
[64]  Tillyer, M. S., & Tillyer, R. (2014). Maybe I Should Do This Alone: A Comparison of Solo and Co-Offending Robbery Outcomes. Justice Quarterly, 32, 1064-1088.
[65]  Uittenbogaard, A. C. (2014). Assessing Guardianship Opportunities at Underground Stations. Security Journal, 27, 147-163.
[66]  Walker, L., & Monahan, J. (1987). Social Frameworks: A New Use of Social Science in Law. Virginia Law Review, 73, 559-598.
[67]  Welsh, B. C., & Farrington, D. P. (2002). Crime Prevention Effects of Closed Circuit Television: A Systematic Review (Vol. 252). London: Home Office.
[68]  Wiebe, D. J., Richmond, T. S., Poster, J., Guo, W., Allison, P. D., & Branas, C. C. (2014). Adolescents’ Fears of Violence in Transit Environments during Daily Activities. Security Journal, 27, 226-241.
[69]  Wright, R. T., & Decker, S. H. (1997). Armed Robbers in Action: Stickups and Street Culture. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
[70]  Yu, S. S. V., & Smith, M. J. (2014). Commuters using Public Transit in New York City: Using Area-Level Data to Identify Neighbourhoods with Vulnerable Riders. Security Journal, 27, 194-209.
[71]  Zimring, W. D. (2006). The Great American Crime Decline. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


comments powered by Disqus