Groups exhibit behavioral consistencies similar to individuals, such as making more or less bold decisions or struggling more or less frequently. However, previous research findings focus only on specific dimensions of groups instead of the general structure of group personality. Based on previous research findings on group and team efficiency, we derived two basic dimensions of group personality, group openness and cohesion, representing the group’s outward and inward orientation, respectively. We present the “Group Openness and Cohesion Questionnaire” (GOCQ) as a measure to assess these two group personality dimensions in groups independent of their context. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the proposed two-dimensional structure with good to excellent psychometric properties. Evidence of validity is provided through group age, group size, and by the fact that the ratings reflect team characteristics. In general, the results support the conceptualization of these two basic dimensions of group personality and provide first indications of validity of the presented measure GOCQ.
Anderson, N. R., & West, M. A. (1996). The Team Climate Inventory: Development of the TCI and Its Applications in Teambuilding for Innovativeness. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5, 53-66. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594329608414840
Anderson, N. R., & West, M. A. (1998). Measuring Climate for Work Group Innovation: Development and Validation of the Team Climate Inventory. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 235-258. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199805)19:3<235::AID-JOB837>3.0.CO;2-C
Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2007). Empirical, Theoretical, and Practical Advantages of the HEXACO Model of Personality Structure. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 150-166. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868306294907
Barrick, M. R., Stewart, G. L., Neubert, M. J., & Mount, M. K. (1998). Relating Member Ability and Personality to Work-Team Processes and Team Effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 377-391. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.3.377
Barry, B., & Stewart, G. L. (1997). Composition, Process, and Performance in Self-Managed Groups: The Role of Personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 62-78. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.1.62
Bear, M., Oldham, G. R., Jacobsohn, G. C., & Hollingshead, A. B. (2008). The Personality Composition of Teams and Creativity: The Moderating Role of Team Creative Confidence. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 42, 255-282. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2008.tb01299.x
Bjornberg, A., & Nicholson, N. (2007). The Family Climate Scales: Development of a New Measure for Use in Family Business Research. Family Business Review, 20, 229-246. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6248.2007.00098.x
Bond, M. H., & Shiu, W. Y. F. (1997). The Relationship between a Group’s Personality Resources and the Two Dimensions of Its Group Process. Small Group Research, 28, 194-217. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496497282002
Carron, A. V., Widmeyer, W. N., & Brawley, L. R. (1985). The Development of an Instrument to Assess Cohesion in Sport Teams: The Group Environment Questionnaire. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7, 244-266. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.7.3.244
Cheng, C., Bartram, T., Karimi, L., & Leggat, S. G. (2013). The Role of Team Climate in the Management of Emotional Labour: Implications for Nurse Retention. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69, 2812-2825. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.12202
Eys, M. A., Lougheed, T., Bray, S. R., & Carron, A. V. (2009). Development of a Cohesion Questionnaire for Youth: The Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31, 390-408. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.31.3.390
Harrison, D. A., Price, K. H., & Bell, M. P. (1998). Beyond Relational Demography: Time and the Effects of Surface- and Deep-Level Diversity on Work Group Cohesion. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 96-107. https://doi.org/10.2307/256901
Homan, A. C., Hollenbeck, J. R., Humphrey, S. E., Van Knippenberg, D., Ilgen, D. R., & Van Kleef, G. A. (2008). Facing Differences with an Open Mind: Openness to Experience, Salience of Intragroup Differences, and Performance of Diverse Work Groups. Academy of Management Journal, 51, 1204-1222. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2008.35732995
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
Jackson, S. E., Brett, J. F., Sessa, V. I., Cooper, D. M., Julin, J. A., & Peyronnin, K. (1991). Some Differences Make a Difference: Individual Dissimilarity and Group Heterogeneity as Correlates of Recruitment, Promotions, and Turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 675-689. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.5.675
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1983). Social Interdepedence and Perceived Academic and Personal Support in the Classroom. The Journal of Social Psychology, 120, 77-82. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1983.9712012
Kurdek, L. A., & Fine, M. A. (1993). The Relation between Family Structure and Young Adolescents’ Appraisal of Family Climate and Parenting Behavior. Journal of Family Issues, 14, 279-290. https://doi.org/10.1177/019251393014002007
Kurdek, L. A., Fine, M. A., & Sinclair, R. J. (1995). School Adjustment in Sixth Graders: Parenting Transitions, Family Climate, and Peer Norm Effects. Child Development, 66, 430-445. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131588
Law, T., Lee, K. Y., Ho, F. N., Vlantis, A. C., van Hasselt, A. C., & Tong, M. C. (2012). The Effectiveness of Group Voice Therapy: A Group Climate Perspective. Journal of Voice, 26, e41-e48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2010.12.003
McCrae, R. R., & Costa Jr., P. T. (1999). A Five-Factor Theory of Personality. In L. A. Pervin, & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (Vol. 2, pp. 139-153). New York: Guilford Press.
Patterson, M., West, M., Shackleton, V., Dawson, J., Lawthom, R., Matlis, S. et al. (2005). Validating the Organizational Climate Measure: Links to Managerial Practices, Productivity and Innovation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 379-408. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.312
Schneider, B. (2000). The Psychological Life of Organizations. In N. Ashkanasy, C. P. M. Wilderom, & M. F. Peterson (Eds.), Handbook of Organizational Culture & Climate (pp. 17-21). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Van Vianen, A. E. M., & De Dreu, C. K. W. (2001). Personality in Teams: Its Relationship to Social Cohesion, Task Cohesion, and Team Performance. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10, 97-120. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320143000573
Zhu, X., Wholey, D. R., Cain, C., & Natafgi, N. (2016). Staff Turnover in Assertive Community Treatment (Act) Teams: The Role of Team Climate. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research.