All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


LLIN Ownership, Utilization, and Malaria Prevalence: An Outlook at the 2015 Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104280, PP. 1-12

Keywords: Malaria, Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets, Insecticide Treated Nets, Rapid Diagnostic Test, Roll Back Malaria, Prevalence, Malaria Indicator Survey, Nigeria

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Background: Malaria is a disease caused by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Nigeria, one of the two epicenters of malaria transmission across the globe, contributes to 40 percent global malaria burden. The disease, considered a global priority, has an annual global death toll of around 400,000 people. The global reduction in malaria burden which is the result of direct scale-up of one of the core malaria interventions using the insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), has prevented around 663 million cases of malaria in the sub-Saharan Africa. The most cost-effective evidenced-based strategy against malaria and its unwanted consequences is sleeping under the LLINs; studies have proven this measure to confer adequate protection to the mother and her unborn child. Methods: Quantitative cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained during the 2015 Nigeria malaria indicator survey. The eligible participants in the survey were pregnant women and caregivers who had at least a child under the age of five years. The survey was conducted in October and November 2015 across the thirty-six states of the country including the Federal Capital Territory. Using SPSS version 24, correlation and regression analyses were run to check for any significant correlation between LLIN use and malaria prevalence. Results: The Pearson correlation is 0.866 (α = 0.026, p < 0.05) 2-tailed test, showing positive linear relationships between LLIN use and malaria prevalence across the six geo-political zones in 2015. The ANOVA test shows F value 21.510 (α = 0.017, p < 0.05) and Regression analysis, R-square 0.935; these further shows a significant correlation between LLIN use and malaria prevalence. In favour of the Alternative Hypothesis, the Null Hypothesis was rejected. However, LLIN ownership and malaria prevalence shows weak correlation with a Pearson correlation of 0.635, (α = 0.175, p < 0.05) 2-tailed test. Conclusion: The outcome of this study once again underscores LLIN as an important prevention tool against malaria and its unwanted consequences. The positive linear correlation on LLIN use and the decline in malaria prevalence underscores the need for governments at all levels to ease up LLIN access to reduce any intervention gaps to further reduce malaria morbidity and mortality and achieve malaria elimination across the country.

References

[1]  World Health Organization (2016) WHO Global Malaria Programme, World Malaria Report. WHO Document Production Service, Geneva.
http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2016/en/
[2]  World Health Organization (2017) World Malaria Day.
http://www.who.int/campaigns/malaria-day/2017/en/
[3]  World Health Organization (2011) World Malaria Report 2011. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[4]  WHO Global Malaria Programme (2016).
http://www.who.int/malaria/en/
[5]  GTS (2016) Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016-2030.
http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241564991/en/
[6]  WHO (2004) A Strategic Framework for Malaria Prevention and Control during Pregnancy in the African Region. World Health Organization: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Geneva.
[7]  Kyu, H.H., Georgiades, K., Shannon, H.S. and Boyle, M.H. (2013) Evaluation of the Association between Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Mass Distribution Campaigns and Child Malaria in Nigeria. Malaria Journal, 12, 14.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-12-14
[8]  World Health Organization (2014) WHO Global Malaria Programme, World Malaria Report. WHO Document Production Service, Geneva.
[9]  RBM (2009) Guidelines for Core Population-Based Indicators. RBM Technical Paper Series No. 1. Roll Back Malaria, Geneva.
[10]  NMEP, NPopC, NBS, and ICF International (2016) Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey 2015. NMEP, NPopC, and ICF International, Abuja and Rockville.
[11]  NMEP (2014) National Malaria Strategic Plan 2014-2020. NMEP and Roll Back Malaria, Abuja.
[12]  Gamble, C.L., Ekwaru, J.P. and terKuile, F.O. (2009) Insecticide-Treated Nets for Preventing Malaria in Pregnancy. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, No. 2, CD003755.
[13]  Eisele, T.P., Larsen, D.A., Anglewicz, P.A., Keating, J., Yukich, J., Bennett, A., Hutchinson, P. and Steketee, R.W. (2012) Malaria Prevention in Pregnancy, Birthweight, and Neonatal Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of 32 National Cross-Sectional Datasets in Africa. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 12, 942-949.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70222-0
[14]  Killeen, G.F., Smith, T.A., Ferguson, H.M., Mshinda, H., Abdulla, S., Lengeler, C. and Kachur, S.P. (2007) Preventing Childhood Malaria in Africa by Protecting Adults from Mosquitoes with Insecticide-Treated Nets. PLOS Medicine, 4, e229.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040229
[15]  Curtis, C.F., Jana-Kara, B. and Maxwell, C.A. (2003) Insecticide Treated Nets: Impact on Vector Populations and Relevance of Initial Intensity of Transmission and Pyrethroid Resistance. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 40, 1-8.
[16]  ICF International (2012) Demographic and Health Survey Interviewer’s Manual. Measure DHS Basic Documentation No. 2, ICF International, Maryland.
[17]  Woyessa, A., Deressa, D., Ali, A. and Lindtjorn, B. (2014) Ownership and Use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets for Malaria Prevention in Butajira Area, South-Central Ethiopia: Complex Samples Data Analysis. BMC Public Health, 14, 99.
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/14/99
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-99
[18]  Aderibigbe, S.A., Olatona, F.A., Sogunro, O., Akande, T.M., et al. (2014) Ownership and Utilisation of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets following Free Distribution Campaign in South West Nigeria. Pan African Medical Journal, 17, 263.
https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2014.17.263.3927
[19]  Singh, M., Brown, G. and Rogerson, S.J. (2013) Ownership and Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets during Pregnancy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. Malaria Journal, 12, 268.
http://www.malariajournal.com/content/12/1/268
https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-12-268
[20]  Auta, A. (2012) Demographic Factors Associated with Insecticide Treated Net Use among Nigerian Women and Children. North American Journal of Medical Sciences, 4, 40-44.
https://doi.org/10.4103/1947-2714.92903
[21]  Ahmed, S.M. and Zerihun, A. (2010) Possession and Usage of Insecticidal Bed Nets among the People of Uganda: Is BRAC Uganda Health Programme Pursuing a Pro-Poor Path? PLoS ONE, 5, e12660.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012660
[22]  Deribew, A., Alemseged, F., Birhanu, Z., Sena, L., Tegegn, A., Zeynudin, A., Dejene, T., Sudhakar, M., Abdo, N. and Tessema, F. (2010) Effect of Training on the Use of Long-Lasting Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets on the Burden of Malaria among Vulnerable Groups, South-West Ethiopia: Baseline Results of a Cluster Randomized Trial. Malaria Journal, 9, 121.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-9-121

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal