This study aims to validate the accuracy of a cervical traction therapy simulation model by comparing the intervertebral separations of six asymptomatic male adults when traction was applied to their cervical spines. The subjects were tested on two mechanical traction devices, representing the inclined and sitting positions. A total of 55 radiographic images of their cervical spines were taken before and during traction. The result showed statistically significant intervertebral space changes in the inclined position but the changes in the sitting position were not statistically significant. The observed changes of the cervical spine were used to adjust parameters of the traction therapy model, which contains a human model with cervical spine built with springs and dampers and two traction devices in inclined and sitting positions. A series of traction forces and traction angles were applied to the model to simulate the actual parameters used in the experiment and the new model was used to evaluate the two traction positions. The result suggested that inclined position creates greater intervertebral separations on the posterior sides. Differences in separations due to age were not observed in both positions. The result also suggested that the inclined position provides better control in positioning the separations at different spinal segments than the sitting position.
Savva, C. and Giakas, G. (2013) The Effect of Cervical Traction Combined with Neural Mobilization on Pain and Disability in Cervical Radiculopathy. A Case Re-port. Manual Therapy, 18, 443-446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2012.06.012
Jellad, A., Ben Salah, Z., Boudokhane, S., Migaou, H., Bahri, I. and Rejeb, N. (2009) The Value of Intermittent Cervical Traction in Recent Cervical Radiculopathy. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 52, 638-652.
Chung, C.-T., Tsai, S.-W., Chen, C.-J., Wu, T.-C., Wang, D., Lan, H.-C.H. and Wu, S.-K. (2009) Comparison of the Intervertebral Disc Spaces between Axial and Anterior Lean Cervical Traction. European Spine Journal, 18, 1669-1676.
Fater, D.C.W. and Kernozek, T.W. (2008) Comparison of Cervical Vertebral Separation in the Supine and Seated Positions Using Home Traction Units. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 24, 430-436.
Wong, L.K., Luo, Z. and Kurusu, N. (2014) Dynamic Simulation of Cervical Traction Therapy: Comparison between Sitting and Inclined Positions. Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), 2014 IEEE International Conference on IEEE, Bali, 5-10 December 2014, 167-172.
Dong, C., Loy, C., He, K. and Tang, X. (2016) Image Super-Resolution Using Deep Convolutional Networks. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 38, 295-307. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2015.2439281
Martins, D.E., De Oliveira, V.M., Alves, M.T.D.S., Wajchenberg, M., Landim, E., Belloti, J.C., Puertas, E.B. and Ishida, A. (2010) Correlations between Radiographic, Magnetic Resonance and Histological Examinations on the Degeneration of Human Lumbar Intervertebral Discs. Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 128, 63-68.
Wong, L.K., Luo, Z., Kurusu, N. and Fujino, K. (2013) Cervical Spine Simulation Model for Traction Therapy Analysis. Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration, Kobe, 15-17 December 2013, 516-520.