All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Meiobenthos Assemblages as Bioindicators for Coastal Pollution Assessment

DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2017.73028, PP. 409-423

Keywords: Meiobenthos, Bioindicator, Coast, Nematode, Foraminifera, Pollution

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Coastal pollution assessment is a pressing matter as the anthropogenic pressure continues to increase worldwide. A leading approach to assess coastal pollution is using bioindicators. However, identifying species is time-consuming and demands profound morphological knowledge. Our goal was to find the meiobenthic composition in each pollution level. By utilizing the meiobenthic assemblage’s ratios, we will be able to indicate the pollution level. We examined the meiobenthos distribution at three sites exposed to a pollution gradient. We quantified the changes in the fauna assemblage in the community phylum level, focusing on nematodes and foraminifera (90% of the total population). Over 400 samples were examined, covering an annual seasonal cycle. Nematodes population dominated in the polluted coast. Nematodes density increased with the pollution level, up to seemingly harmful levels of pollution. In contradiction, the foraminifera flourished in the control site and exhibited an inverse relationship to the nematodes. We witnessed drastic changes in the entire meiobenthic population in the winter, which we speculate that originated from winter turbulences. We suggest that nematodes-foraminifers’ population ratios may be utilized as bioindicators for assessing coast intertidal zone pollution levels.

References

[1]  Dahl, E. (1952) Some Aspects of the Ecology and Zonation of the Fauna on Sandy Beaches. Oikos, 1923, 1-27.
[2]  Coll, M., Piroddi, C., Steenbeek, J., Kaschner, K., Lasram, F.B.R., Aguzzi, J., Ballesteros, E., Bianchi, C.N., Corbera, J., Dailianis, T., Danovaro, R., Estrada, M., Froglia, C., Galil, B.S., Gasolm J.M., Gertwage, R., Gil, J., Guilhaumon, F., Kesner-Reyes, K., Kitsos, M.S., Koukouras, A., Lampadariou, N., Laxamana, E., de la Cuadra, C.M.L.F., Lotze, H.K., Martin, D., Mouillot, D., Oro, D., Raicevich, S., Rius-Barile, J., Saiz-Salinas, J.I., Vicente, C.S., Somot, S., Templado, J., Turon, X., Vafidis, D., Villanueva, R., and Voultsiadou, E. (2010) The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats. PLoS ONE, 5, e11842.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011842
[3]  Por, F.D. (1971) One Hundred Years of Suez Canal—A Century of Lessepsian Migration: Retrospect and Viewpoints. Systematic Zoology, 20, 138-159.
https://doi.org/10.2307/2412054
[4]  Por, F.D. (1975) Pleistocene Pulsation and Preadaptation of Biotas in Mediterranean Seas: Consequences for Lessepsian Migration. Systematic Zoology, 24, 72-78.
https://doi.org/10.2307/2412699
[5]  Golani, D. (1998) Impact of Red Sea Fish Migrants through the Suez Canal on the Aquatic Environment of the Eastern Mediterranean. Bulletin Series Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 103, 375-387.
[6]  Lejeusne, C., Chevaldonné, P., Pergent-Martini, C., Boudouresque, C.F. and Pérez, T. (2010) Climate Change Effects on a Miniature Ocean: The Highly Diverse, Highly Impacted Mediterranean Sea. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25, 250-260.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2009.10.009
[7]  Jean, P.G. and Stephen, V.S. (2011) Coastal Zone. [Online]. Available:
http://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/coastal_zone
[8]  Simboura, N. and Zenetos, A. (2002) Benthic Indicators to Use in Ecological Quality Classification of Mediterranean Soft Bottom Marine Ecosystems, including a New Biotic Index. Mediterranean Marine Science, 3, 77-111.
https://doi.org/10.12681/mms.249
[9]  Rosenberg, R., Blomqvist, M., Nilsson, H.C., Cederwall, H. and Dimming, A. (2004) Marine Quality Assessment by Use of Benthic Species-Abundance Distributions: A Proposed New Protocol within the European Union Water Framework Directive. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49, 728-739.
[10]  Armenteros, M., Regadera, R., Vincx, M. and Decraemer, W. (2009) Effects of Chronic and Heavy Pollution on Macro- and Meiobenthos of Havana Bay, Cuba. Revista de Investigacion Marina, 30, 203-214.
[11]  Glibert, P.M., Burkholder, J.M. and Kana, T.M. (2012) Recent Insights about Relationships between Nutrient Availability, Forms, and Stoichiometry, and the Distribution, Ecophysiology, and Food Web Effects of Pelagic and Benthic Prorocentrum Species. Harmful Algae, 14, 231-259.
[12]  Giere, O. (2009) Meiobenthology. The Microscopic Motile Fauna of Aquatic Sediments. 2nd Edition, University of Hamburg. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.
[13]  Borowitzka, M. (1972) Intertidal Algal Species Diversity and the Effect of Pollution. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 23, 73-84.
https://doi.org/10.1071/MF9720073
[14]  Pinedo, S., Garcia, M., Satta, M.P., de Torres, M. and Ballesteros, E. (2007) Rocky-Shore Communities as Indicators of Water Quality: A Case Study in the Northwestern Mediterranean. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 55, 126-135.
[15]  Balsamo, M., Semprucci, F., Frontalini, F. and Coccioni, R. (2010) Meiofauna as a Tool for Marine Ecosystem Biomonitoring. In: Cruzado, A., Ed., Marine Ecosystems, InTech.
[16]  Holt, E.A. and Miller, S.W. (2011) How Do We Assess the Impacts of Human Activities on Natural Ecosystems? What Can the Biota Tell Us about the Environment and Its Response to Natural Stress? Introduction What Is a Bioindicator? Nature Education Knowledge, 2, 1-10.
[17]  Herut, B., Shefer, E., Gordon, N., Galil, B., Lubinevsky, H., Tibor, G., Tom, M., Rilov, G., Silverman, J. and Rinkevich, B. (2014) The National Monitoring Program of Israel’s Mediterranean Coastal Waters. Scientific Report for 2012, IOLR Report H62/2013.
[18]  Herut, B. and All Scientific Group of IOLR, National Institute of Oceanography (2015) The National Monitoring Program of Israel’s Mediterranean waters. Scientific Report for 2013/14, IOLR Report H21/2015.
[19]  Hoffman, A., Iluz, R., Kamenir, D., Dubinsky, Y. and Israel, Z. (2011) Pollution Effects on the Benthic Intertidal Algal Flora along the Israeli Mediterranean Shores. Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan.
[20]  Burgess, R. (2001) An Improved Protocol for Separating Meiofauna from Sediments Using Colloidal Silica Sols. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 214, 161-165.
https://doi.org/10.3354/meps214161
[21]  Guilini, K., Bezerra, T.N., Eisendle-Flockner, U., Deprez, T., Fonseca, G., Holovachov, O., Leduc, D., Miljutin, D., Moens, T., Sharma, J., Smol, N., Tchesunov, A., Mokievsky, V., Vanaverbeke, J., Vanreusel, A., Venekey, V. and Vincx, M. (2017) NeMys: World Database of Free-Living Marine Nematodes. Accessed at
http://nemys.ugent.be
[22]  Murray, J.W. (2006) Ecology and Applications of Benthic Foraminifera. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1-426.
[23]  Ridel, R. (2010) Fauna and Flora of the Mediterranean. Seifert Verlag.
[24]  Eleftheriou, A. and Mcintyre, A. (2005) Methods for Study of Marine Benthos. 3rd Edition, Vol. 1004, Blackwell Science, Hoboken, NJ.
https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470995129
[25]  Avnimelech, Y., Ritvo, G., Meijer, L.E. and Kochba, M. (2001) Water Content, Organic Carbon and Dry Bulk Density in Flooded Sediments. Aquacultural Engineering, 25, 25-33.
[26]  Dupuy, C., Rossignol, L., Geslin, E. and Pascal, P.-Y. (2010) Predation of Mudflat Meio-Macrofaunal Metazoans by a Calcareous Foraminifer, Ammonia Tepida (Cushman, 1926). The Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 40, 305-312.
[27]  Moens, T., Herman, P., Verbeeck, L., Steyaert, M. and Vincx, M. (2000) Predation Rates and Prey Selectivity in Two Predacious Estuarine Nematode Species. Marine Ecology Progress Series., 205, 185-193.
https://doi.org/10.3354/meps205185
[28]  Moens, T. and Vincx, M. (1997) Observations on the Feeding Ecology of Estuarine Nematodes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 77, 211-227.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400033889
[29]  Johannes, R.E. (1978) Reproductive Strategies of Coastal Marine Fishes in the Tropics. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 3, 65-84.
[30]  Peterson, W. (1998) Life Cycle Strategies of Copepods in Coastal Upwelling Zones. Journal of Marine Systems, 15, 313-326.
[31]  Pringle, J.M., Byers, J.E., Pappalardo, P., Wares, J.P. and Marshall, D. (2014) Circulation Constrains the Evolution of Larval Development Modes and Life Histories in the Coastal Ocean. Ecology, 95, 1022-1032.
https://doi.org/10.1890/13-0970.1
[32]  Robins, P.E., Neill, S.P., Giménez, L., Jenkins, S.R., Malham, S.K. and Gime, L. (2013) Physical and Biological Controls on Larval Dispersal and Connectivity in a Highly Energetic Shelf Sea. Limnology and Oceanography, 58, 505-524.
https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2013.58.2.0505
[33]  Wang, J., Zhou, H., Zhang, Z., Cong, B. and Xu, S. (2011) Effects of Organic Enrichment on Sandy Beach Meiofauna: A Laboratory Microcosm Experiment. Journal of Ocean University of China, 10, 246-254.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11802-011-1831-4
[34]  Amjad, S. and Gray, J.S. (1983) Use of the Nematode-Copepod Ratio as an Index of Organic Pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 14, 178-181.
[35]  Coull, B.C., Hicks, G.R.F. and Wells, J.B.J. (1981) Nematode/Copepod Ratios for Monitoring Pollution: A Rebuttal. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 12, 378-381.
[36]  Raffaelli, D. (1987) The Behaviour of the Nematode/Copepod Ratio in Organic Pollution Studies. Marine Environmental Research, 23, 135-152.
[37]  Vilela, C.G., Batista, D.S., Baptista Neto, J.A. and Ghiselli, R.O. (2011) Benthic Foraminifera Distribution in a Tourist Lagoon in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: A Response to Anthropogenic Impacts. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62, 2055-2074.
[38]  Losi, V., Moreno, M., Gaozza, L., Vezzulli, L., Fabiano, M. and Albertelli, G. (2013) Nematode Biomass and Allometric Attributes as Indicators of Environmental Quality in a Mediterranean Harbour (Ligurian Sea, Italy). Ecological Indicators, 30, 80-89.
[39]  Kress, N., Herut, B. and Galil, B.S. (2004) Sewage Sludge Impact on Sediment Quality and Benthic Assemblages off the Mediterranean Coast of Israel—A Long-Term Study. Marine Environmental Research, 57, 213-233.
[40]  Harris, J.M. and Vinobaba, P. (2013) Assessment the Present Status of Batticaloa Lagoon, Sri Lanka by Means of Water Quality, Fish Diversity Indices and Pollution Indicating Planktons. Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species, 1.
[41]  Ormond, F.G.R., Gage, D.J. and Angel, V.M. (1997) Marine Biodiversity: Patterns and Processes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511752360
[42]  McLachlan, A. and Brown, A. (2006) The Ecology of Sandy Shores. 2nd Edition, Elsevier Ltd., London.
[43]  Moodleyl, L., Chen, G., Heipl, C. and Vincx, M. (2000) Vertical Distribution of Meiofauna in Sediments from Contrasting Sites in the Adriatic Sea: Clues to the Role of Abiotic versus Biotic Control. Ophelia, 53, 203-212.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus