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Influence of Modifiers on Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), Part I

DOI: 10.4236/ijamsc.2017.52002, PP. 17-39

Keywords: Supercritical Fluid (SF), Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC), Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), Modifiers, Influence of Modifiers, Colligative Properties, Thermodynamics-Based Evaluation of Binary Mixtures, Phase Equilibria

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Abstract:

It is important to understand the mechanism and implications of different modifiers on analytical and preparative processes under chromatography with supercritical fluids (SFs) and under extraction with SFs. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction are generally carried out with neat supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) or with SCCO2 containing modifiers (or cosolvents), especially for strongly polar compounds. For example, methanol is added as a cosolvent/modifier to SCCO2 for the extraction/separation of polar compounds. This paper discusses the influence of the modifier on the colligative properties of the principal mobile phase, which may define the situation in the total mobile phase in a chromatography column or in parts of a column under SFC. No colligative behavior of solutions reflects individual properties of the solutes. Their cross-interactions with solvents are discussed.

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