All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Evaluation of Yield and Competition Indices for Intercropped Eight Maize Varieties, Soybean and Cowpea in the Zone of Savanna of South-West RD Congo

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103746, PP. 1-18

Keywords: Intercropping, Maize, Legumes, LER, Monetary Advantage Index, DR Congo

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


In order to enhance the legumes potential advantages on the cereal yield in intercropping system by nitrogen direct transfer from legume to cereal, an intercropping experiment was conducted between eight maize varieties (07SADVE, 08SADVE 1, 09SADVE F2, Mudishi 1, Mudishi 3, VP0523, ZM538 and Samaru), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var. H4) and soybean (Glycine max var. Vuangi) during November 2011-February 2012 season at INERA/Mvuazi in the south-western country of DR Congo. The experimental design was a Split plot with four replications, twenty six treatments were applied between maize varieties monocrops (40.000 plant·ha﹣1) and legumes in monoculture (360.000 plant·ha﹣1) and both of sole planting were combined. Evaluation of these soles planting was performed on basis of several intercropping indices (MYE, LER, ATER, RCC, A and CR), the monetary advantage index (MAI), Actual Yield Loss index (AYL) and intercropping index (IA). After data analysis, competitivity indices indicated the higher yields advantages of maize varieties in intercropping, especially Mudishi 3-soybean (MYE = 2836.300 kg·ha﹣1). The equivalent land ratio (LER) varied with 08SADVE 1variety between 0.70 and 1.66 in cowpea and soybean intercrops respectively, the Relative crowding coefficient (RCC) showed yield advantage of all intercrops except with 09SADVE F2, Mudishi 1 and 07SADVE. Aggressivity (A) showed dominance of maize in all intercrops, against the Competitive ratio (CR) showed that the competitivity was stronger on cowpea (from 16.42 to 98.63) than soybean (from 16.12 to 25.70). Actual yield loss (AYL) was negative in all intercrops with cowpea and soybean. Thus, the index of association (IA) informed that the negative values of the different intercrops were due to the maize price (1000 CDF·kg﹣1) and legumes price (1500 CDF·kg﹣1). Finally, the monetary advantage index (MAI = 922.92) and PCA had determined that intercrop with Mudishi 3-soybean as an economic efficiency intercrop than others mixtures.


[1]  Giller, K.E. and Wilson, K.J. (1991) Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Cropping Systems. CAB International, Wallingford, England, 167-237.
[2]  Puckridge, D.W. and French, R.J. (1983) The Annual Legume Pasture in Cereal Ley-Farming Systems of Southern Australia: A Review. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 9, 229-267.
[3]  Machet, J.M., Laurent, F., Chapot, J.Y., Doré, T. and Dutrout, A. (1997) Maitrise de l'azote dans les intercultures et les jachères. [Mastery of Nitrogen in Intercultures and Fallows.] In: INRA, Ed., Maitrise de l’azote dans les agrosystèrnes [Nitrogen Control in Agrosystems], Symposiums, N83, 271-288.
[4]  FAO (2005) Regards sur l’agriculture de conservation en Afrique de l’ouest et du centre et ses perspectives. Contribution au 3ème Congrès mondial d’agriculture de conservation à Nairobi, Rome, Italie, 114. [Perspectives on Conservation Agriculture in West Africa and Center and Its Perspectives. Contribution to the 3rd World Agriculture Congress of Conservation in Nairobi, Rome, Italy, 114.]
[5]  Masson, P. and Bertoni, G. (1996) Essai d’enherbement d’un vignoble méridional à base de trèfle souterrain: Synthèse de six années d'expérimentation. In: XI Kolloquium Begrünung im Weibau, Internationaler Arbeitsjkreis im Weinbau, Kaltern-Sud Tyrol, Italie, 28-31 aout 1996.
[6]  Thurston, D.H. (1997) Slash and Mulch Systems. Sustainable Methods for Tropical Agriculture. Westview Press, London, 196 p.
[7]  Azontonde, A., Feller, C., Ganry, F. and Remy, J.C. (1998) Le mucuna et la restauration des propriétés d’un sol ferralitique au Sud du Bénin. [Mucuna and Restoration Properties of a Ferralitic Soil in Southern Benin.] Agriculture et Développement, 18, 55-62.
[8]  Capillon, A. and Séguy, L. (2002) Ecosystèmes cultivés et stockage du carbone. cas des systèmes de culture en semis direct avec couverture végétale. [Cultivated Ecosystems and Carbon Storage. Case Direct Sowing Systems with Vegetal Cover.] C.R. Acad. Agri. Fr., 88, 63-70.
[9]  CIALCA (2008) Rapport d’avancement 4-Bujumbura, Amélioration des moyens de vie basés sur l’agriculture en Afrique Centrale par le biais d’une productivité de systèmes durablement accrue en vue d’améliorer les revenus, la sécurité alimentaire et l’environnement. Réunion de lancement de CIALCA-II, Bujumbura, du 28 au 31 octobre 2008, 28. [Progress Report 4-Bujumbura, Improving the Means to Based on Agriculture in Central Africa through a Productivity of Sustainable Systems in Order to Improve Incomes, Food Security and the Environment. CIALCA-II Launch Meeting, Bujumbura, 28-31 October 2008, 28.]
[10]  Hauggaard-Nielsen, H., Ambus, P. and Jensen, E.S. (2001) Evaluating Pea and Barley Cultivars for Complementary in Intercropping at Different Levels of Soil N Availability. Field Crops Research, 72, 185-196.
[11]  Tsubo, M., Walker, S. and Ogindo, H.O. (2005) A Simulation Model of Cereal-Legume Intercropping Systems for Semi-Arid Regions. II. Model Application. Field Crops Research, 93, 23-33.
[12]  Banik, P., Sasmal, T., Ghosal, P.K. and Bagchi, D.K. (2000) Evaluation of Mustard (Brassica campestris var. Toria) and Legume in 1:1 and 2:1 Replacement Series System. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 185, 9-14.
[13]  Ghosh, P.K. (2004) Growth, Yield, Competition and Economics of Groundnut/Cereal Fodder Intercropping Systems in the Semi-Arid Tropics of India. Field Crops Research, 88, 227-237.
[14]  Agegnehu, G., Ghizam, A. and Sinebo, W. (2006) Yield Performance and Land-Use Efficiency of Barley and Faba Bean Mixed Cropping in Ethiopian Highlands. European Journal of Agronomy, 25, 202-207.
[15]  Dhima, K.V., Lithourgidis, A.A., Vasilakoglou, I.B. and Dordas, C.A. (2007) Competition Indices of Common Vetch and Cereal Intercrops in Two Seeding Ratio. Field Crops Research, 100, 249-256.
[16]  Anil, L., Park, J., Phipps, R.H. and Miller, F.A. (1998) Temperate Intercropping of Cereals for Forage: A Review of the Potential for Growth and Utilization with Particular Reference to the UK. Grass and Forage Science, 53, 301-317.
[17]  Poggio, S.L. (2005) Structure of Weed Communities Occurring in Monoculture and Intercropping of Field Pea and Barley. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 109, 48-58.
[18]  Banik, P., Midya, A., Sarkar, B.K. and Ghose, S.S. (2006) Wheat and Chickpea Intercropping Systems in an Additive Series Experiment: Advantages and Weed Smothering. European Journal of Agronomy, 24, 325-332.
[19]  Chen, C., Westcott, M., Neill, K., Wichman, D. and Knox, M. (2004) Row Configuration and Nitrogen Application for Barley-Pea Intercropping in Montana. Agronomy Journal, 96, 1730-1738.
[20]  Fenandez-Aparicio, M., Josefina, C. and Sillero, D.R. (2007) Intercropping with Cereals Reduces Infection by Orobanche crenata in Legumes. Crop Protection, 26, 1166-1172.
[21]  Tsubo, M., Walker, S. and Mukhala, E. (2001) Comparisons of Radiation Use Efficiency of Mono-Inter-Cropping Systems with Different Row Orientations. Field Crops Research, 71, 17-29.
[22]  Yilmaz, S., Atak, M. and Erayman, M. (2008) Identification of Advantages of Maize-Legume Intercropping over Solitary Cropping through Competition Indices in the East Mediterranean Region. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 111-119.
[23]  Hiebesch, C.K. and McCollum, R.E. (1987) Area × Time Equivalency Ratio: A Method for Evaluating the Productivity of Intercrops. Agronomy Journal, 79, 15-22.
[24]  Hiebsch, C.K. (1980) Principles of Intercropping: Effect of N Fertilization and Crop Duration on Equivalency Ratios in Intercrops versus Monoculture Comparisons. PhD Thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
[25]  Midya, A., Bhattacharjee, K., Ghose, S.S. and Banik, P. (2005) Deferred Seeding of Blackgram (Phaseolus mungo L.) in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Field on Yield Advantages and Smothering of Weeds. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 191, 195-201.
[26]  Lithourgidis, A.S., Valchostergios, D.N., Dordas, C.A. and Damalas, C.A. (2011) Dry Matter Yield, Nitrogen Content, and Competition in Pea-Cereal Intercropping Systems. European Journal of Agronomy, 34, 287-294.
[27]  Weigelt, A. and Jolliffe, P. (2003) Indices of Plant Competition. Journal of Ecology, 91, 707-720.
[28]  Willey, R.W. (1979) Intercropping Its Importance and Research Needs. I. Competition and Yield Advantages. Field Crop Abstracts, 32, 1-10.
[29]  Paliwal, L.R., Granados, G., Violic, A.D., Lafitte, H.R. and Marathee, J.P. (2002) Le mais en zones tropicales: Amélioration et production. [Maize in Tropical Zones: Improvement and Production.] Food & Agriculture Org., 382 p.
[30]  Anuaneyulu, V.R., Singh, S.P. and Pla, M. (1982) Effect of Competition Free Period and Technique and Pattern of Pearl Millet Planting on Growth and Yield of Mungbean and Total Productivity in Solid Pearl Millet and Pearl Millet/Mungbean Intercropping System. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 27, 219-226.
[31]  Willey, R.W. and Osiru, D.S. (1972) Studies on Mixtures of Maize and Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) with Particular References to Plant Population. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 79, 519-529.
[32]  Mead, R. and Willey, R.W. (1980) The Concept of a “Land Equivalent Ratio” and Advantages on Yields from Intercropping. Experimental Agriculture, 16, 217-228.
[33]  Ofori, F. and Stern, W.R. (1987) Cereal Legume Intercropping System. Advances in Agronomy, 41, 41-90.
[34]  Caballero, R., Goicoechea, E.L. and Hernaiz, P.J. (1995) Forage Yields and Quality of Common Vetch and Oat Sown at Varying Seeding Ratios and Seeding Rates of Common Vetch. Field Crops Research, 41, 135-140.
[35]  De Wit, C.T. (1960) On Competition. Verslagen Landbouwkundige Onderzoekigen, 66, 1-82.
[36]  Willey, R.W. and Rao, M.R. (1980) A Competitive Ratio for Quantifying Competition between Intercrops. Experimental Agriculture, 16, 117-125.
[37]  Esmaeili, A., Sadeghpour, A., Hosseini, S.M.B., Jahanzad, E., Chaichi, M.R. and Hashemi, M. (2011) Evaluation of Seed Yield and Competition Indices for Intercropping Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Annual Medic (Medicago scutellata). International Journal of Plante Production, 5, 395-404.
[38]  Banik, P. (1996) Evaluation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Legume Intercropping under 1:1 and 2:1 Row-Replacement Series System. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 176, 289-294.
[39]  Kasetsart University (1989) Annual Report. Department of Agronomy and National Corn and Sorghum Research Center, Bangkok.
[40]  Xiaolei, S. and Zhifeng, W. (2002) The Optimal Leaf Area Index for Cucumber Photosynthesis and Production in Plastic Green House. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 633.
[41]  Prasad, R.B. and Brook, R.M. (2005) Effect of Varying Maize Densities on Intercropped Maize and Soybean in Nepal. Experimental Agriculture, 41, 365-382.
[42]  Hardter, R., Horst, W.J., Schmidt, G. and Frey, E. (1991) Yields and Land Use Efficiency of Maize-Cowpea Crop Rotations in Comparison to Mixed and Monocropping on an Alfisol in Northern Ghana. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 166, 326-337.
[43]  Li, L. (1999) Interspecific Facilitative and Competitive Interactions between Intercropped Species in Intercropping Systems. PhD Dissertation, China Agricultural University, Beijing.
[44]  Aasim, M., Umer, E.M. and Karim, A. (2008) Yield and Competition Indices of Intercropping Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using Different Planting Patterns. Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi, 14, 326-333.
[45]  Osunde, A.O., Tsado, P.A., Bala, A. and Sanginga, N. (2004) Productivity of a Maize-Promiscuous Soybean Intercrops as Affected by Fertilizer in the Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria. West African Journal of Applied Ecology, 5, 2004.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal