This study was conducted to evaluate the diurnal effect on essential oil yield and composition of Ledum palustre L. grown in northern Inner Mongolia, China. Essential oil content and composition were determined and compared as a function of different harvesting times viz. 7:00 AM, 11:00 AM, 3:00 PM, 7:00 PM, and 11:00 PM within a day. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The yield of essential oil was varied from 1.21% to 1.62%; the maximum oil yield was obtained at 3:00 PM and the minimum at 7:00 PM. Similar to oil yield, qualitative difference in essential oil composition of L. palustre was observed. For the best essential oil yields, L. palustre should be harvested during 11:00 AM to 3:00 PM.
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