Objective: About 90% of autistic children are known to have a selective feeding disorder. In particular, methods are lacking for stimulating self feeding and treating selective eating amongst school-aged and adolescent autistic children. We developed a simple training programme for paediatricians in a general hospital to improve the eating pattern of autistic children and decrease selectivity. Methods: The study is an experimental patient series. The instructions for the training were given in 15-minute sessions by a paediatrician with the use of social positive and negative reinforcements. The negative reinforcement was an avoidance situation. The training was performed with parental participation in the home environment of the child. Results and conclusion: In the before and after measurement, the quantitative intake of fruit, potatoes and vegetables increased significantly (p < 0.05). Food selectivity decreased, expressed by an increase in variation of consumed fruit, meat, potatoes and sandwich filling (p < 0.01). The costs of the training are low, and the children stay in their home environment.
Bandini, L.G, Anderson, S.E., Curtin, C., et al. (2010) Food Selectivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 157, 259-264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.02.013
Kodak, T. and Piazza, C.C. (2008) Assessment and Behavioral Treatment of Feeding and Sleeping Disorders in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 17, 887-905, x-xi.
Schreck, K.A., Williams, K. and Smith, A.F. (2004) A Comparison of Eating Behaviors between Children with and without Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 433-438.
Piazza, C.C., Patel, M.R., Santana, C.M., et al. (2002) An Evaluation of Simultaneous and Sequential Presentation of Preferred and Nonpreferred Food to Treat Food Selectivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 259-270.
Valleau, J.C. and Sullivan, E.L. (2014) The Impact of Leptin on Perinatal Development and Psychopathology. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, 61-62, 221-232.
Tang, B., Piazza, C.C., Dolezal, D. and Stein, M.T. (2011) Severe Feeding Disorder and Malnutrition in 2 Children with Autism. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 32, 264-267. https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e3182138668
Herndon, A.C., DiGuiseppi, C., Johnson, S.L., et al. (2009) Does Nutritional Intake Differ between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Children with Typical Development? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 212-222.
Herguner, S., Kelesoglu, F.M., Tanidir, C. and Copur, M. (2012) Ferritin and Iron Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder. European Journal of Pediatrics, 171, 143-146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-011-1506-6
Zimmer, M.H., Hart, L.C., Manning-Courtney, P., et al. (2012) Food Variety as a Predictor of Nutritional Status among Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 549-556. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1268-z
Anderson, S.E., Must, A., Curtin, C. and Bandini, L.G. (2012) Meals in Our Household: Reliability and Initial Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess Child Mealtime Behaviors and Family Mealtime Environments. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112, 276-284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2011.08.035
Hendy, H.M., Williams, K.E., Riegel, K. and Paul, C. (2010) Parent Mealtime Actions That Mediate Associations between Children’s Fussy-Eating and Their Weight and Diet. Appetite, 54, 191-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2009.10.006
Seiverling, L., Hendy, H.M. and Williams, K. (2011) The Screening Tool of Feeding Problems Applied to Children (STEP-CHILD): Psychometric Characteristics and Associations with Child and Parent Variables. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 1122-1129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2011.01.012
Vaz, P.C., Volkert, V.M. and Piazza, C.C. (2011) Using Negative Reinforcement to Increase Self-Feeding in a Child with Food Selectivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 915-920. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2011.44-915
Seiverling, L., Williams, K., Sturmey, P. and Hart, S. (2012) Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Parental Treatment of Children’s Food Selectivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 197-203. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2012.45-197
Lewis, C.D., Traboulsi, E.I., Rothner, A.D. and Jeng, B.H. (2010) Xerophthalmia and Intracranial Hypertension in an Autistic Child with Vitamin A Deficiency. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus, 48, E1-E3.
McAbee, G.N., Prieto, D.M., Kirby, J., Santilli, A.M. and Setty, R. (2009) Permanent Visual Loss Due to Dietary Vitamin A Deficiency in an Autistic Adolescent. Journal of Child Neurology, 24, 1288-1289. https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073809333541
Tanoue, K., Matsui, K. and Takamasu, T. (2012) Fried-Potato Diet Causes Vitamin A Deficiency in an Autistic Child. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 36, 753-755. https://doi.org/10.1177/0148607111436280
Camargo Jr., C.A., Ganmaa, D., Frazier, A.L., et al. (2012) Randomized Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation and Risk of Acute Respiratory Infection in Mongolia. Pediatrics, 130, e561-567. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-3029
Wu, A.C., Tantisira, K., Li, L., et al. (2012) Effect of Vitamin D and Inhaled Corticosteroid Treatment on Lung Function in Children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 186, 508-513.
Villamor, E., Marin, C., Mora-Plazas, M. and Baylin, A. (2011) Vitamin D Deficiency and Age at Menarche: A Prospective Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94, 1020-1025. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.111.018168
Biancheri, R., Cerone, R., Schiaffino, M.C., et al. (2001) Cobalamin (Cbl) C/D Deficiency: Clinical, Neurophysiological and Neuroradiologic Findings in 14 Cases. Neuropediatrics, 32, 14-22. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2001-12217
Codazzi, D., Sala, F., Parini, R. and Langer, M. (2005) Coma and Respiratory Failure in a Child with Severe Vitamin B(12) Deficiency. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, 6, 483-485. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.PCC.0000167565.30084.84
Peirano, P., Algarin, C., Chamorro, R., et al. (2012) Iron Deficiency Anemia in Infancy Exerts Long-Term Effects on the Tibialis Anterior Motor Activity during Sleep in Childhood. Sleep Medicine, 13, 1006-1012.
Imdad, A., Mayo-Wilson, E, Herzer, K. and Bhutta, Z.A. (2017) Vitamin A Supplementation for Preventing Morbidity and Mortality in Children from 6 Months to 5 Years of Age. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, No. 3, CD008524.