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Organic Amendments with Chemical Fertilizers Improve Soil Fertility and Microbial Biomass in Rice-Rice-Rice Triple Crops Cropping Systems

DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2017.75007, PP. 87-100

Keywords: Integrated Plant Nutrition Systems (IPNS), Poultry Manure, Rice Straw, Water Holding Capacity

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Abstract:

Medium-term changes in the labile nutrient pool of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) resulting from organic manure application in rice (Oryza sativa L.)-based triple cropping systems have been poorly studied. Therefore, the effects of organic materials on the soil physico-chemical properties and microbial biomass in rice fields were investigated at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Bangladesh, from April 2010 to December 2012. Five treatments (control, cow dung, poultry manure, rice straw, and chemical fertilizer) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The organic residues (2 t C ha-1) were applied 7 days before transplanting and were combined with inorganic fertilizers, following integrated plant nutrition systems. This paper presents the results from the last of the five consecutive rice growing seasons. All of the organic residues increased the pH, and organic C, N, P, and K contents of the soil. However, poultry manure was more efficient in increasing soil fertility than cow dung and rice straw, resulting in a significant increase in P from 22 mg·kg-1 to 63 mg·kg-1 at crop harvest. All of the organic residues also increased the soil water holding capacity and decreased bulk density. Furthermore, poultry manure resulted in significantly higher microbial biomass C (432 mg·kg-1; P < 0.05) and N (31.60 mg·kg-1; P < 0.05) levels in the soil at crop harvest, followed by cow dung and rice straw. These findings indicate that the regular application of organic residues and manures will help to enhance soil fertility and production sustainability.

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