All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

The Extent and Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Masito-Ugalla Ecosystem, Kigoma Region, Tanzania

DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2017.72018, PP. 285-305

Keywords: Deforestation, Forest Degradation, Drivers of Deforestation, Masito-Ugalla Ecosystem

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Deforestation and forest degradation has been observed to be rampant in Masito-Ugalla ecosystem, Kigoma Region, western part of Tanzania. This paper therefore, intended to assess the extent of deforestation and forest degradation in the area, and to determine their causes. A total of 101 respondents were considered as the sample size for this study. The methods used for data collection were household questionnaire interviews, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, analysis of satellite images and direct observation. The findings indicated that deforestation was occurring in the study area. Satellite data revealed diminished closed woodland, bushed grassland, forest and thickets between 1990 and 2014. On the contrary, settlement area, cultivated land and open woodland had increased during the same time frame. Proximate factors causing deforestation and forest degradation included agricultural expansion, wood extraction and expansion of settlement area. Underlying factors included population growth, poverty, poor levels of education, lack of employment, corruption and embezzlement of public funds by politicians and senior government officials; and high demand for fuel-wood. Biophysical drivers like incidences of unplanned wildfires and socio trigger events notably civil strife were also important. In order to minimize the problem and based on the factors augmenting deforestation and forest degradation in the Masito-Ugalla ecosystem and their coupled negative consequences, effective environmental conservation education, increased patrols, effective law enforcement and provision of alternative energy sources are necessary.


[1]  Abdullah, S. M. S., & Mahmud, M. (2005). Tropical Deforestation and Its Impacts on Environment and Quality of Life.
[2]  Ahrends, A. (2005). Patterns of Degradation in Lowland Coastal Forests in Coast Region, Tanzania. MSc Thesis, Greifswald: Greifswald University.
[3]  Baboo, S., & Devi, M. R. (2011). Geometric Correction in Recent High Resolution Satellite Imagery: A Case Study in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. International Journal of Computer Applications, 14, 32-37.
[4]  Bolton, R. N. (1993). Pretesting Questionnaires: Content Analyses of Respondents’ Concurrent Verbal Protocols. Marketing Science, 12, 280-303.
[5]  Burgess, R., Hansen, M., Olken, B., Potapov, P., & Sieber, S. (2012). Corruption and REDD + Identifying Risks amid Complexity.
[6]  Caelli, T., & Reye, D. (1993). On the Classification of Image Regions by Color, Texture and Shape. Pattern Recognition, 26, 461-470.
[7]  CIFOR (2014). Chapter 12: Building REDD Readiness in the Masito Ugalla Ecosystem Pilot Area in Support of Tanzania’s National REDD Strategy.
[8]  Cochrane, M. A., & Laurance, W. F. (2002). Fire as a Large-Scale Edge Effect in Amazonian Forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 18, 311-325.
[9]  Deloitte (2012). Mid-Term Review Report of Nine NGO REDD + Pilot Projects in Tanzania.
[10]  FAO (2009). Towards Defining Degradation by Markku Simula (p. 11). FRA Working Paper 154, Rome: FAO.
[11]  FAO (2010). Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010—Main Report. Forestry Paper No. 163, Rome: FAO.
[12]  FAO (2011). Economic and Social Significance of Forests for Africa’s Sustainable Development. Nature and Faune, 25.
[13]  FAO (2016). State of the World Forests. Rome: FAO.
[14]  GAO (General Accounting Office) (1989). Content Analysis: A Methodology for Structuring and Analyzing Written Material. Washington DC: GAO.
[15]  Geist, H. J., & Lambin, E. F. (2002). Proximate Causes and Underlying Driving Forces of Tropical Deforestation. BioScience, 52, 143-150.[0143:PCAUDF]2.0.CO;2
[16]  Hansen, M. C., & DeFries, R. S. (2004). Detecting Long-Term Global Forest Change using Continuous Fields of Tree-Cover Maps from 8-km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Data for the Years 1982-99. Ecosystems, 7, 695-716.
[17]  Hogqvist, M., Nummelin, S., Stahl, M., & Miljoventen-skap, B. (1998). The View of Nature of Villagers in Kisarawe District. Karlstad: The Department of Nature and Environment, Karlstad University.
[18]  Hosonuma, N., Herold, M., De Sy, V., De Fries, R. S., Brockhaus, M., Verchot, L., Angelsen, A., & Romijn, E. (2012). An Assessment of Deforestation and Forest Degradation Drivers in Developing Countries. Environmental Research Letters, 7, 4009.
[19]  IPCC (2014). Climate Change 2014 Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability: Summaries, Frequently Asked Questions, and Cross-Chapter Boxes. A Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
[20]  Johnson, R. L., & Chenje, M. (2008). Africa: Atlas of Our Changing Environment. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
[21]  Kashaigili, J. J., Mdemu, M. V., Nduganda, A. R., & Mbilinyi, B. P. (2013). Integrated Assessment of Forest Cover Change and Above-Ground Carbon Stock in Pugu and Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserves, Tanzania. Advances in Remote Sensing, 2, 1-9.
[22]  Klein, J. (2002). Deforestation in the Madagascar Highlands-Established “Truth” and Scientific Uncertainty. Geo Journal, 56, 191-199.
[23]  Kumar, G. R. P., Hemanjali, A. M., Ravikumar, P., Somashekar, R. K., & Nagaraja, B. C. (2010). Assessing the Historical Forest Encroachment of Kodagu Region of Western Ghats, South India using Remote Sensing and GIS.
[24]  Lanen, H. A. J., Tallaksen, L. M., & Rees, G., (2007). Droughts and Climate Change.
[25]  Madeira, C. E. (2008). Policies to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in Developing Countries: An Examination of the Issues Facing the Incorporation of REDD into Market-based Climate Policies.
[26]  Malugu, I. O. E. (2007). Resources-Use Conflicts and Management Challenges for Pugu and Kazimzumbwi Forest Re-Serves in Kisarawe and Ilala Districts, Tanzania. Discovery and Innovation, 19, 149-174.
[27]  Mather, A. S. (1991). Global Forest Resources. Dehra Dun: International Book Distributors.
[28]  Misana, S. B., & Nyaki, F. R. (1993). Population and Deforestation in Tanzania. In D. Salaam, & United Nations, Population, Environment and Development in Tanzania (pp. 41-60). New York, NY: United Nations.
[29]  Mori, H. (2013). Review of Selected REDD + Project Designs.
[30]  Mulhall, A. (2003). Methodological Issues in Nursing Research in the Field: Notes on Observation in Qualitative Research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41, 306-313.
[31]  Murdiyarso, D., & Adiningsih, E. S. (2003). Causes of Indonesian Vegetation/Land Fires and Terrestrial Carbon Emissions.
[32]  Ngalason, P. (2009). Building REDD Readiness in the Masito-Ugalla Ecosystem Pilot Area in Support of Tanzania’s National REDD Strategy.
[33]  NORAD (2013). Implementing REDD+ in the Democratic Republic of Congo How to Manage the Risk of Corruption. A Report Commissioned by NORAD Prepared by PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) in Collaboration with NORAD and UNDP.
[34]  Pickering, U., & Owen, G. (1997). Impact of Deforestation on Environment. New York, NY: Herper and Row Publications.
[35]  Pripathy, P., & Pripathy, K. P. (2017). Fundamentals of Research: Dissective View.
[36]  Reed, D. (1996). Structural Adjustment, the Environment, and Sustainable Development. London: Earthscan.
[37]  Relief (2003). Report on Buyungu Forest Reserve. Kibondo: REDESO Kibondo Office.
[38]  Rocchini, D., & Rita, A. D. (2005). Relief Effects on Aerial Photos Geometric Correction. Applied Geography, 25, 159-168.
[39]  Sanderson, M., Santini, M., Valentini, R., & Pope, E. (2010). Relationships between Forests and Weather. EC Directorate General of the Environment.
[40]  Sands, R. (2005). Forestry in a Global Context. Wallingford: CABI Publishing.
[41]  Sitarz, D. (1994). Agenda 21: The Earth Summit Strategy to Save Our Planet. Boulder: Earthpress.
[42]  Stewart, D. W., & Shamdasani, P. (2017). Online Focus Groups. Journal of Advertising, 46, 48-60.
[43]  Su, G. S., Macawile, J., Villarino, A., Agapito, J., & Gomez, N. (2011). Recognizing Local People’s Perceptions towards Deforestation in Quezon Province, Philippines. Environmental Research Journal, 5, 131-135.
[44]  Svoboda, D., & McNamara, M. (2009). USDA Forest Service Technical Assistance Trip Watershed Assessment of the Masito-Ugalla Landscape.
[45]  TFWG (2009). Recommendations for the National Strategy on Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD).
[46]  Timberlake, L. (1991). Africa in Crisis: The Causes, the Cures of Environmental Bankruptcy (2nd ed.). London: Earthscan.
[47]  TRAFFIC (2006). Anti-Poaching Conference, 17 October 2006.
[48]  UNEP and CBD (2001). Main Theme: Forest Biological Diversity.
[49]  URT (2014). Lake Tanganyika Integrated Regional Development Programme (PRODAP): Exit Strategy (Draft).
[50]  Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Pérez-Cabello, F., & Lasanta, T. (2008). Assessment of Radiometric Correction Techniques in Analyzing Vegetation Variability and Change Using Time Series of Landsat Images. Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 3916-3934.
[51]  Wu, Y. (2011). Investigation of Deforestation in East Africa on Regional Scales. Master’s Thesis Geography, 30 HECs, Stockholm: Stockholm University.
[52]  WWF (2016). Importance of Forests.


comments powered by Disqus