All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Microencapsulation by Spray Drying of Vitamin A Palmitate from Oil to Powder and Its Application in Topical Delivery System

DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2017.71002, PP. 10-39

Keywords: Vitamin A Palmitate, Microencapsulation, Spray Drying, Starch Derivatives, Topical Delivery

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Vitamin A palmitate (VAP) contains retinol and palmitic acid which is easily absorbed by body and widely used in skin care products. But, it is a hydrophobic and oxidation sensitive molecule which undergoes rapid degradation especially in an aqueous environment. The purpose of this study was to prepare microcapsules of VAP using combination maltodextrin and modified starches. Emulsion of VAP was prepared using cremophore RH 40 with Tween 80 in a homogenizer and formed emulsion was spray-dried. The spray process was optimized using a central composite design for two variables to obtain microcapsules with desirable characteristics. Microcapsules containing 30% of VAP were produced using different concentration of wall materials. The prepared microcapsules were evaluated for their physical, morphological, in-vitro drug release and SEM study. The results showed that obtained microcapsules are nearly spherical in shape with a particle size ranged from 1 to 12 μm. The drug content and encapsulation efficiency (53% - 63%) of different batches were found within acceptable range. These stabilized drug loaded microcapsules were incorporated into silicone cream based formulation for convenient topical application and evaluated for its physicochemical parameters. The drug release study showed 80.18% to 83.43% of drug release from VAP microcapsules while topical formulations prepared by VAP microcapsules showed 67.09% to 71.45% drug release at the end of 24 hrs. The formulations were kept for 3 months stability study as per ICH guidelines and found to be stable.


[1]  Loveday, S.M. and Singh, H. (2008) Recent Advances in Technologies for Vitamin A Protection in Foods. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 19, 657-668.
[2]  West, C.E., Eilander, A. and van Lieshout, M. (2002) Consequences of Revised Estimates of Carotenoid Bioefficacy for Dietary Control of Vitamin A Deficiency in Developing Countries. The Journal of Nutrition, 132, 2920S-2926S.
[3]  Moyano, M. and Segall, A. (2011) Vitamin A Palmitate and-Lipoic Acid Stability in o/w Emulsions for Cosmetic Application. Journal of Cosmetic Science, 62, 405-415.
[4]  Sauvant, P., Cansell, M., Sassi, A.H. and Atgié, C. (2012) Vitamin A Enrichment: Caution with Encapsulation Strategies Used for Food Applications. Food Research International, 46, 469-479.
[5]  Promislow, J.H., Goodman-Gruen, D., Slymen, D.J. and Barrett-Connor, E. (2002) Retinol Intake and Bone Mineral Density in the Elderly: The Rancho Bernardo Study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 17, 1349-1358.
[6]  Feskanich, D., Singh, V., Willett, W.C. and Colditz, G.A. (2002) Vitamin A Intake and Hip Fractures among Postmenopausal Women. JAMA, 287, 47-54.
[7]  Failloux, N., Bonnet, I., Perrier, E. and Baron, M.H. (2004) Effects of Light, Oxygen and Concentration on Vitamin A1. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 35, 140-147.
[8]  Semenova, E.M., Cooper, A., Wilson, C.G. and Converse, C.A. (2002) Stabilization of All-Trans-Retinol by Cyclodextrins: A Comparative Study Using HPLC and Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry, 44, 155-158.
[9]  Lesmes, U. and McClements, D.J. (2009) Structure-Function Relationships to Guide Rational Design and Fabrication of Particulate Food Delivery Systems. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 20, 448-457.
[10]  Fuchs, M., Turchiuli, C., Bohin, M., Cuvelier, M., Ordonnaud, C., Peyrat-Maillard, M., et al. (2006) Encapsulation of Oil in Powder Using Spray Drying and Fluidised Bed Agglomeration. Journal of Food Engineering, 75, 27-35.
[11]  Sinton, R. (1998) TasteTech—The Taste of Things to Come. Nutrition & Food Science, 98, 227-230.
[12]  Shahidi, F. and Han, X.Q. (1993) Encapsulation of Food Ingredients. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 33, 501-547.
[13]  Buffo, R. and Reineccius, G. (2000) Optimization of Gum Acacia/Modified Starch/ Maltodextrin Blends for the Spray Drying of Flavors. Perfumer & Flavorist, 25, 45-54.
[14]  Chiu, Y., Chiu, C., Chien, J., Ho, G., Yang, J. and Chen, B. (2007) Encapsulation of Lycopene Extract from Tomato Pulp Waste with Gelatin and Poly(γ-Glutamic Acid) as Carrier. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 5123-5130.
[15]  Ersus, S. and Yurdagel, U. (2007) Microencapsulation of Anthocyanin Pigments of Black Carrot (Daucus carota L.) by Spray Drier. Journal of Food Engineering, 80, 805-812.
[16]  Tuyen, C.K., Nguyen, M.H. and Roach, P.D. (2010) Effects of Spray Drying Conditions on the Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of the Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis) Fruit Aril Powder. Journal of Food Engineering, 98, 385-392.
[17]  Reineccius, G.A. (1989) Flavor Encapsulation. Food Reviews International, 5, 147-176.
[18]  Drusch, S., Serfert, Y., Van Den Heuvel, A. and Schwarz, K. (2006) Physicochemical Characterization and Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil Encapsulated in an Amorphous Matrix Containing Trehalose. Food Research International, 39, 807-815.
[19]  Kolanowski, W., Laufenberg, G. and Kunz, B. (2004) Fish Oil Stabilisation by Microencapsulation with Modified Cellulose. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 55, 333-343.
[20]  Balasubramani, P., Palaniswamy, P., Visvanathan, R., Thirupathi, V., Subbarayan, A. and Maran, J.P. (2015) Microencapsulation of Garlic Oleoresin Using Maltodextrin as Wall Material by Spray Drying Technology. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 72, 210-217.
[21]  Desorgher, M. and Desorgher, S. (2002) The Nutrient Needs of the Flautist—Vitamin A. Autism, Pigments, and the Immune System.
[22]  Pople, P.V. and Singh, K.K. (2006) Development and Evaluation of Topical Formulation Containing Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Vitamin A. AAPS PharmSciTech, 7, E63-E69.
[23]  Junyaprasert, V.B., Mitrevej, A., Sinchaipanid, N., Boonme, P. and Wurster, D.E. (2001) Effect of Process Variables on the Microencapsulation of Vitamin A Palmitate by Gelatin-Acacia Coacervation. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 27, 561-566.
[24]  Fule, R., Meer, T., Amin, P., Dhamecha, D. and Ghadlinge, S. (2014) Preparation and Characterisation of Lornoxicam Solid Dispersion Systems Using Hot Melt Extrusion Technique. Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, 44, 41-59.
[25]  Wang, Y., Lu, Z., Lv, F. and Bie, X. (2009) Study on Microencapsulation of Curcumin Pigments by Spray Drying. European Food Research and Technology, 229, 391-396.
[26]  Patil, A.K., Gangurde, A.B. and Amin, P.D. (2014) Comparative Study of Different Formulations of Aceclofenac as a Topical Drug Delivery System and It’s in Vitro and in Vivo Characterization. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 5, 3401.
[27]  Kamble, S., Udapurkar, P., Nakhat, P., Yeole, P. and Biyani, K. (2011) Development and Evaluation of Sorbitan Monostearate Organogels as a Topical Delivery System for Aceclofenac. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 45, 65-70.
[28]  Segall, A., Sosa, M., Alami, A., Enero, C., Hormaechea, F., Pizzorno, M., et al. (2004) Stability Study of Lipoic Acid in the Presence of Vitamins A and E in o/w Emulsions for Cosmetic Application. Journal of Cosmetic Science, 55, 449-462.
[29]  Wakode, R. and Bajaj, A. (2011) Gelatin Microspheres for Topical Delivery of Vitamin A Palmitate. NHSM Journal of Pharmacy and Healthcare Management, 2, 61-65.
[30]  Nenadis, N. and Tsimidou, M. (2002) Observations on the Estimation of Scavenging Activity of Phenolic Compounds Using Rapid 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) Tests. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 79, 1191-1195.
[31]  Erasto, P., Bojase-Moleta, G. and Majinda, R.R. (2004) Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Flavonoids from the Root Wood of Bolusanthus speciosus. Phytochemistry, 65, 875-880.
[32]  Pouton, C.W. (2000) Lipid Formulations for Oral Administration of Drugs: Non-Emulsifying, Self-Emulsifying and “Self-Microemulsifying” Drug Delivery Systems. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 11, S93-S98.
[33]  Craig, D., Barker, S., Banning, D. and Booth, S. (1995) An Investigation into the Mechanisms of Self-Emulsification Using Particle Size Analysis and Low Frequency Dielectric Spectroscopy. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 114, 103-110.
[34]  Yang, Y. and McClements, D.J. (2013) Encapsulation of Vitamin E in Edible Emulsions Fabricated Using a Natural Surfactant. Food Hydrocolloids, 30, 712-720.
[35]  Patil, V., Chauhan, A.K. and Singh, R.P. (2014) Optimization of the Spray-Drying Process for Developing Guava Powder Using Response Surface Methodology. Powder Technology, 253, 230-236.
[36]  Jaya, S. and Das, H. (2004) Effect of Maltodextrin, Glycerol Monostearate and Tricalcium Phosphate on Vacuum Dried Mango Powder Properties. Journal of Food Engineering, 63, 125-134.
[37]  Loh, S.K., Man, C., Yaakob, B., Tan, C.P., Osman, A. and Hamid, N.S.A. (2005) Process Optimisation of Encapsulated Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) Powder Using Spray-Drying Method. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85, 1999-2004.
[38]  Silva, P.I., Stringheta, P.C., Teófilo, R.F. and de Oliveira, I.R.N. (2013) Parameter Optimization for Spray-Drying Microencapsulation of Jaboticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) Peel Extracts Using Simultaneous Analysis of Responses. Journal of Food Engineering, 117, 538-544.
[39]  Tonon, R.V. (2009) Secagem por atomização do suco de açaí: Influência das variáveis de processo, qualidade e estabilidade do produto. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Doutorado em Engenharia de Alimentos.
[40]  Molyneux, P. (2004) The Use of the Stable Free Radical Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for Estimating Antioxidant Activity. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 26, 211-219.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal