Introduction: Lung cancer is often diagnosed in a late stage, which might be related to lack of risk factors and symptoms awareness. Aim of this study was to evaluate these factors. Methods: A survey was conducted to assess the awareness of lung cancer risk factors and symptoms. Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher and chi-square tests were used to compare the groups. Results: Altogether 403 participants (108 male; median age 29 (range 13 to 74) years; 98 smokers, 90 ex-smokers and 212 non-smokers) completed the survey (321 filled in online questionnaire, 82 were interviewed face-to-face). Three per cent of the respondents were unable to name any lung cancer risk factor, 36% named one and 61% named two or more. Smoking was mentioned most commonly, others far less often. When presented with a list of lung cancer risk factors, 99.7% of respondents recognised two or more; most commonly smoking (99%) and second-hand smoking (95%). Concerning symptoms, 17% were unable to name any, 21% named one and 62% named two or more. Prolonged cough was mentioned most often (59%), followed by dyspnea (45%) and chest pain (30%). When presented with a list, 99% of respondents recognised two or more symptoms; most often prolonged cough (86%), weakness (85%) and chest pain (82%). There were no statistical differences in lung cancer symptom, risk factor or prognosis awareness among smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers. There were some differences related to age, sex, education and type of used questionnaire. Conclusions: Awareness of lung cancer risks and symptoms is moderate in general population without major differences between smokers and non-smokers.
(2009) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on Action against Cancer: European Partnership.
Ferlay, J., Soerjomataram,I., Dikshit, R., Eser, S., Mathers, C., Rebelo, M., Parkin, D.M., Forman, D. and Bray, F. (2015) Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: Sources, Methods and Major Patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. International Journal of Cancer, 136, E359-E386. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29210
National Institute for Health Development (2016) Health Statistics and Health Research Database.
Robb, K., Stubbings, S., Ramirez, A., Macleod, U., Austoker, J., Waller, J., Hiom, S. and Wardle, J. (2009) Public Awareness of Cancer in Britain: A Population-Based Survey of Adults. British Journal of Cancer, 101, S18-S23.
Simon, A.E., Juszczyk, D., Smyth, N., Power, E., Hiom, S., Peake, M.D. and Wardle, J. (2012) Knowledge of Lung Cancer Symptoms and Risk Factors in the UK: Development of a Measure and Results from a Population-Based Survey. Thorax, 67, 426-432. https://doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2011-200898
Walker, S.L., Saltman, D.L., Colucci, R. and Martin, L. (2010) Awareness of Risk Factors among Persons at Risk for Lung Cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Sleep Apnea: A Canadian Population-Based Study. Canadian Respiratory Journal, 17, 287-294. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/426563
Li, Q., Dresler, C., Heck, J.E., Allwright, S., Haglund, M., Sanchez, S., Kralikova, E., Strucker, I., Tamang, E., Gritz, E.R. and Hashibe, M. (2010) Knowledge and Beliefs about Smoking and Cancer among Women in Five European Countries. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 19, 2811-2820.
Low, E.L., Simon, A.E., Lyons, J., Romney-Alexander, D. and Waller, J. (2012) What Do British Women Know about Cervical Cancer Symptoms and Risk Factors? European Journal of Cancer, 48, 3001-3008.
Mazières, J., Pujol, J.L., Kalampalikis, N., Bouvry, D., Quoix, E., Filleron, T., Targowla, N., Jodelet, D., Milia, J. and Milleron, B. (2015) Perception of Lung Cancer among the General Population and Comparison with Other Cancers. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 10, 420-425. https://doi.org/10.1097/JTO.0000000000000433
Siahpush, M., McNeill, A., Hammond, D. and Fong, G.T. (2006) Socioeconomic and Country Variations in Knowledge of Health Risks of Tobacco Smoking and Toxic Constituents of Smoke: Results from the 2002 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tobacco Control, 15, iii65-iii70.