All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


The Wetting Behavior of Fresh and Aged Soot Studied through Contact Angle Measurements

DOI: 10.4236/acs.2017.71002, PP. 11-22

Keywords: Soot, Black Carbon, Wetting, Enthalpy of Immersion, Contact Angle, Graphene Oxide

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

In this work, contact angle measurements for soot samples collected from a kerosene lantern, wood-burning fireplace, and municipal bus engine exhaust lines are reported. Contact angles for both freshly collected soot and samples treated with various doses of O3 (g), HNO3 (g), and H2SO4 (g) are considered. Use of a literature method has allowed estimation of the enthalpy of immersion (Himm) for the soot samples based on contact angle observed. Contact angles for freshly collected soot were 65 - 110 deg. indicating its hydrophobic nature. Chemical processing of soot usually resulted in smaller contact angles and large increases in immersion enthalpy. However, the dose of ozone, nitric or sulfuric acid vapor required to achieve alteration of the soot surface appeared to be considerably larger than that expected to be experienced by authentic atmospheric samples during the soot particles lifetime. The most significant variability of soot contact angle was observed for the municipal bus exhaust samples, suggesting that combustion chemistry may significantly affect wetting behavior.

References

[1]  Chylek, P. and Hallett, J. (1992) Enhanced Absorption of Solar Radiation by Cloud Droplets Containing Soot Particles in Their Surface. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 118, 167-172.
https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49711850310
[2]  Popovicheva, O., Kireevaa, E., Persiantsevaa, N., Khokhlovab, T., Shonijab, N., Tishkovac, V. and Demirdjianc, B. (2008) Effect of Soot on Immersion Freezing of Water and Possible Atmospheric Implications. Atmospheric Research, 90, 326-337.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2008.08.004
[3]  Wei, Y., Zhang, Q. and Thompson, J.E. (2013) Atmospheric Black Carbon Can Exhibit Enhanced Light Absorption at High Relative Humidity. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 29413-29445.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-13-29413-2013
[4]  Spagnolo, D.A., Maham, Y. and Chuang, K.T. (1996) Calculation of Contact Angle for Hydrophobic Powders Using Heat of Immersion Data. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 100, 6626-6630.
https://doi.org/10.1021/jp951405m
[5]  Bradley, R.H., Sutherland, I. and Sheng, E. (1995) Relationship between Carbon Black Surface Chemistry and Energy. Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, 91, 3201-3207.
https://doi.org/10.1039/ft9959103201
[6]  Kraus, G. (1955) The Heat of Immersion of Carbon Black in Water, Methanol, and n-Hexane. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 59, 343-345.
https://doi.org/10.1021/j150526a016
[7]  Rodriguez-Reinoso, F., Molina-Sabio, M. and Gonzalez, M.T. (1997) Effect of Oxygen Surface Groups on the Immersion Enthalpy of Activated Carbons in Liquids of Different Polarity. Langmuir, 13, 2354-2358.
https://doi.org/10.1021/la961047u
[8]  Young, G.J., Chessick, J.J., Healey, F.H. and Zettlemoyer, A.C. (1954) Thermodynamics of the Adsorption of Water on Graphon from Heats of Immersion and Adsorption Data. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 58, 313.
https://doi.org/10.1021/j150514a006
[9]  Wang, Z.B., Hu, M., Mogensen, D., Yue, D.L., Zheng, J., Zhang, R.Y., Liu, Y., Yuan, B., Li, X., Shao, M., Zhou, L., Wu, Z. J., Wiedensohler, A. and Boy, M. (2013) The Simulations of Sulfuric Acid Concentration and New Particle Formation in an Urban Atmosphere in China. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 11157-11167.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-11157-2013
[10]  Dreyer, D.R., Park, S., Bielawski, C.W. and Ruoff, R.S. (2010) The Chemistry of Graphene Oxide. Chemical Society Reviews, 39, 228-240.
https://doi.org/10.1039/B917103G
[11]  Liu, Y., Liu, C., Ma, J., Ma, Q. and He, H. (2010) Structural and Hygroscopic Changes of Soot during Heterogeneous Reaction with O3. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 12, 10896-10903.
https://doi.org/10.1039/c0cp00402b
[12]  Wei, Y., Ma, L., Cao, T., Zhang, Q., Wu, J., Buseck, P.R. and Thompson, J.E. (2013) Light Scattering and Extinction Measurements Combined with Laser-Induced Incandescence for the Real-Time Determination of Soot Mass Absorption Cross Section. Analytical Chemistry, 85, 9181-9188.
https://doi.org/10.1021/ac401901b
[13]  Friedel, R.A., Shultz, J.L. and Sharkey, A.G. (1959) Mass Spectrum of Nitric Acid. Analytical Chemistry, 31, 1128-1128.
https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60150a615
[14]  Taylor, G.T. (1925) Vapor Pressure of Aqueous Solutions of Nitric Acids. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 17, 633-635.
https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50186a037
[15]  Perry, R.H. (2008) Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook. 8th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2-86.
[16]  Persiantseva, N.M., Popovicheva, O.B. and Shonija, N.K. (2004) Wetting and Hydration of Insoluble Soot Particles in the Upper Troposphere. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 6, 939-945.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b407770a
[17]  Roedel, W. (1979) Measurement of Sulfuric Acid Saturation Vapor Pressure; Implications for Aerosol Formation by Heteromolecular Nucleation. Journal of Aerosol Science, 10, 375-386.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-8502(79)90032-6
[18]  Wang, S., Zhang, Y., Abidi, N. and Cabrales, L. (2009) Wettability and Surface Free Energy of Graphene Films. Langmuir, 25, 11078-11081.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la901402f
[19]  Weber, R.J., McMurry, P.H., Mauldin III, R.L., Tanner, D.J., Eisele, F.L., Clarke, A.D. and Kapustin, V.N. (1999) New Particle Formation in the Remote Troposphere: A Comparison of Observations at Various Sites. Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 307-310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/1998GL900308
[20]  Al-Qurashi, K. and Boehman, A.L. (2008) Impact of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on the Oxidative Reactivity of Diesel Engine Soot. Combustion and Flame, 155, 675-695.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2008.06.002
[21]  Al-Qurashi, K., Zhang, Y. and Boehman, A.L. (2012) Impact of Intake CO2 Addition and Exhaust Gas Recirculation on NOx Emissions and Soot Reactivity in a Common Rail Diesel Engine. Energy & Fuels, 26, 6098-6105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef201120f
[22]  Song, J., Alam, M. and Boehman, A.L. (2007) Impact of Alternative Fuels on Soot Properties and DPF Regeneration. Combustion Science and Technology, 179, 1991-2037.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00102200701386099
[23]  Vander Wal, R.L., Yezerets, A., Currier, N.W., Kim, D.H. and Wang, C.M. (2007) HRTEM Study of Diesel Soot Collected from Diesel Particulate Filters. Carbon, 45, 70-77.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2006.08.005

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus