All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Wootz: Cast Iron or Steel?

DOI: 10.4236/msa.2016.711061, PP. 792-802

Keywords: Wootz, Damascus Steel, Bulat, Tool Steel

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


It is shown that the excess carbide phase in Wootz is of an unusual nature origin that differs from the excess phase of secondary cementite, ledeburite and primary cementite in iron-carbon alloys. It is revealed that the morphological features of excess cementite in Wootz lie in the abnormal size of excess carbides having the shape of irregular prisms. It is discovered that the faceted angular carbides are formed within the original of metastable ledeburite, so they are called “eutectic carbides”. It was found that angular eutectic carbides in the Wootz formed during long isothermal soaking at the annealing and subsequent deformation of ledeburite structures. It is revealed that carbon takes up 2.25% in Wootz (in the region of white cast iron), while none in its structure of crushed ledeburite. It is shown that the pattern of carbide heterogeneity consists entirely of angular eutectic carbides having an irregular trigonal-prismatic morphology. It is shown that Wootz (Damascus steel) is non-alloy tool steel of ledeburite class, similar with structural characteristics of die steel of ledeburite class and high-speed steel, differing from them only in the nature of excess carbide phase.


[1]  Taganov, I.N. (2009) The End of Bulat Legend. Kalashnikov, No. 11, 92-97.
[2]  Tavadze, F.N., Amaglobeli, V.G., Inanishvili, G.V. and Eterashvili, T.V. (1984) Electron Microscopic Studies of Bulat. Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian, 113, 601-604.
[3]  Sherby, O.D. and Wadsworth, J. (1985) Damascus Steel. Scientific American, 252, 112-120.
[4]  Verhoeven, J.D., Pendray, A.H. and Gibson, E.D. (1996) Wootz Damascus Steel Blades. Materials Characterization, No. 37, 9-22.
[5]  Gaev, I.S. (1965) Bulat and Contemporary Iron-Carbon Alloys. MiTOM, No. 9, 17-24.
[6]  Gurevich, Yu.G. (2007) Classification of Bulat with Respect to Macro- and Microstructure. MiTOM, No. 2, 3-7.
[7]  Schastlivtsev, V.M., Urtsev, V.N., Shmakov, A.V., et al. (2013) Structure of Bulat. FMM, 114, 650-657.
[8]  Sukhanov, D.A. and Arkhangelsky, L.B. (2016) Damascus Steel Microstructure. Metallurgist, No. 59, 818-822.
[9]  Sukhanov, D.A., Arkhangelsky, L.B., Plotnikova, N.V. and Belousova, N.S. (2016) Morphology of Excess Carbides Damascus Steel. Journal of Materials Science Research, 5, 59-65.
[10]  Kremnev, L.S. and Zabolotsky, V.K. (1969) Large Carbides in the Structure of High-Speed Steels. Metal Science and Heat Treatment, 11, 53-58.
[11]  Golikov, I.N. (1958) Dendritic Liquation in Steel. Metallurgizdat, Moscow.
[12]  Taran, Yu.N. and Novik, V.I. (1967) Structure of Cementite in White Cast Iron. Foundry Production, No. 1, 34-38.
[13]  Nizhnikovskaya, P.F. (1982) Carbide Transformations in Eutectic Iron-Carbon Alloys. Metals, No. 6, 105-110.
[14]  Nizhnikovskaya, P.F. (1984) Structure and Ductility of Eutectic Type Iron-Carbon Alloys. Metal Science and Heat Treatment, 26, 652-657.
[15]  Geller, Yu.A. (1968) Tool Steels. Metallurgy, Moscow.


comments powered by Disqus