Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) offer an attractive solution to many environmental,
security and process monitoring. However, their lifetime remains very limited by
battery capacity. Through the use of piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques, ambient
vibration can be captured and converted into usable electricity to create selfpowering
WSN which is not limited by finite battery energy. This paper investigates
analytically and experimentally the performance of a WSN powered by a Piezoelectric
Energy Harvesting System (PEHS) and a material block-level modeling considering
most key energy consumption of a wireless sensor node in a star topology
network is proposed. By using real hardware parameters of existing components, the
proposed model is used to evaluate the energetic budget of the node. The sensor
node performance is evaluated regarding transmit packet size, duty cycle and the
number of nodes that can be deployed. From the spectral properties of the available
vibration inside two moving vehicles (automobile and train), the maximal recoverable
power for each type of vehicle is estimated. Using a PEHS based on a cantilever
beam optimized for low-frequency applications, 6 mW power is recovered in the case
of the train while a 12.5 mW power is reached in the case of the automobile. It is observed
that the sink may not operate with the recovered energy. However, the sensor
node can sense and transmit data with a maximum size of 105.5 kbits when the duty
cycle is 4 × 10-15. It is also achieved that the node is most effective when the measured
physical phenomena vary slowly, such as the variations in temperature due to
thermal inertia. Considering an optimized PEHS based on non-linear processing, it is
shown that the sink can operate for 190% improvement of the recovered power.
Hamilton, M.C. (2012) Recent Advances in Energy Harvesting Technology and Techniques. 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Montreal, 25-28 October 2012, 6297-6304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iecon.2012.6389019
Basagni, S., Naderi, M.Y., Petrioli, C. and Spenza, D. (2013) Wireless Sensor Networks with Energy Harvesting. In: Basagni, S., Conti, M., Giordano, S. and Stojmenovic, I., Eds., Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: The Cutting Edge Directions, John Wiley and Sons Inc., Hoboken, 701-736. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118511305.ch20
Polastre, J., Robert, S. and David, C. (2005) Telos: Enabling Ultra-Low Power Wireless Research. IEEE International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Los Angeles, 15 April 2005, 364-369.
Haifang, F., Lixiang, M. and Supeng, L. (2010) A Low Overhead Wireless Sensor Networks MAC Protocol. IEEE International Conference on Computer Engineering and Technology (ICCET), Chengdu, 16-18 April 2010, 128-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iccet.2010.5485683
Win, K.K., Wu, X., Dasgupta, S., Wen, W.J., Kumar, R. and Panda, S.K. (2010) Efficient Solar Energy Harvester for Wireless Sensor Nodes. IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems, Singapore, 17-19 November 2010, 289-294.
Tan, Y.K. and Panda, S.K. (2011) Self-Autonomous Wireless Sensor Nodes with Wind Energy Harvesting for Remote Sensing of Wind-Driven Wildfire Spread. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 60, 1367-1377.
Mouapi, A., Hakem, N., Delisle, G.Y. and Kandil, N. (2015) A Novel Piezoelectric Micro-Generator to Power Wireless Sensors Networks in Vehicles. IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering, Rome, 10-13 June 2015, 1089-1092.
Qingyuan, Z., Mingjie, G. and Yuanqin, H. (2012) Vibration Energy Harvesting in Automobiles to Power Wireless Sensors. International Conference on Information and Automation, Shenyang, 6-8 June 2012, 349-354.
Haboubi, W., Takhedmit, H., Lan Sun Luk, J.D., Salah-Eddine, A., Allard, B., Costa, F., Vollaire, C., Picon, O. and Cirio, L. (2014) An Efficient Dual-Circularly Polarized Rectenna for RF Energy Harvesting in the 2.45 GHz ISM Band. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 148, 31-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.2528/PIER14031103
Chuo, Y., Marzencki, M., Hung, B., Jaggernauth, C., Tavakolian, K., Lin, P. and Kaminska, B. (2010) Mechanically Flexible Wireless Multisensor Platform for Human Physical Activity and Vitals Monitoring. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, 4, 281-294.
Jacquot, A., Chen, G., Scherrer, H., Dauscher, A. and Lenoir, B. (2005) Improvements of On-Membrane Method for Thin Film Thermal Conductivity and Emissivity Measurements. Sensors and Actuators, 117, 203-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2004.06.013
Fraas, L.M., Avery, J.E. and Nakamura, T. (2002) Electricity from Concentrated Solar IR in Solar Lighting Applications. IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Louisiana, 19-24 May 2002, 963-966. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/pvsc.2002.1190758
Roundy, S., Wright, P.K. and Rabaey, J. (2003) A Study of Low Level Vibrations as a Power Source for Wireless Sensor Nodes. Computer Communications, 26, 1131-1144.
Halgamuge, M.N., Malka, N., Zukerman, M. and Romamohanarao, K. (2009) An Estimation of Sensor Energy Consumption. Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, 12, 259-295.
Shrestha, A. and Xing, L. (2007) A Performance Comparison of Different Topologies for Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security, Woburn, 16-17 May 2007, 280-285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ths.2007.370059
Sadouq, Z.A., Mabrouk, M.E. and Essaaidi, M. (2014) Conserving Energy in WSN through Clustering and Power Control. IEEE International Colloquium in Information Science and Technology, Tetouan, 20-22 October 2014, 402-409.
Miller, M.J. and Vaidya, N.H. (2005) A MAC Protocol to Reduce Sensor Network Energy Consumption Using a Wakeup Radio. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 4, 228- 242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMC.2005.31
Shnayder, V., Hempstead, M., Chen, B., Allen, G.W., and Welsh, M. (2004) Simulating the Power Consumption of Large-Scale Sensor Network Applications. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, New York, 3-5 November 2004, 188-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1031495.1031518
Heinzelman, W.R., Chandrakasan, A. and Balakrishnan, H. (2000) Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, 4-7 January 2000, 3005-3014.
Heinzelman, W.R., Sinha, A., Wang, A. and Chandrakasan, A.P. (2000) Energy-Scalable Algorithms and Protocols for Wireless Microsensor Networks. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Istanbul, 5-9 June 2000, 3722-3725.
Beeby, S.P., Wang, L., Zhu, D., Weddell, A.S., Merrett, G.V., Stark, B. and Al-Hashimi, B.M. (2013) A Comparison of Power Output from Linear and Nonlinear Kinetic Energy Harvesters Using Real Vibration Data. Smart Materials and Structures, 22, Article ID: 075022.
Song, D., Yang, C.H., Hong, S.K., Kim, S.B., Woo, M.S. and Sung, T.H. (2012) Feasibility Study on Application of Piezoelectricity to Convert Vibrations of Korea Train Express. Proceedings of ISAF-ECAPD-PFM, Aveiro, 9-13 July 2012, 1-4.
Richard, C., Guyomar, D., Audigier, D. and Ching, G. (1999) Semi-Passive Damping Using Continuous Switching of a Piezoelectric Device. Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials, Newport Beach, 1-5 March 1999, 104-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.349773
Barton, D.A.W., Stephen, G.B. and Lindsay, R.C. (2010) Energy Harvesting from Vibrations with a Nonlinear Oscillator. Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, 132, Article ID: 021009.
Lallart, M. and Guyomar, D. (2008) An Optimized Self Powered Switching Circuit for Non- Linear Energy Harvesting with Low Voltage Output. Smart Materials and Structures, 17, Article ID: 035030. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/17/3/035030