Human enteroviruses are less well-known causes of acute bronchiolitis. In recent years, Enterovirus
D68 [EV D68] has emerged as significant cause of epidemic viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia
in the United States and other countries. Chronic bronchiolitis has not been previously attributed
to EV D68. We documented EV D68 in open lung biopsies of a young adult patient who was frequently
admitted to the hospital for severe exacerbation of respiratory infections and subsequently
developed progressive respiratory insufficiency. The difficulty of diagnosis and potential
economic impact of this illness is discussed.
Oberste, M.S. and Pallansch, M. (2003) Establishing Evidence for Enterovirus Infection in Chronic Diseases. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1005, 23-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1288.004
Jacques, J., Bouscambert-Duchamp, M., Moret, H., Carquin, J., Brodard, V., Lina, B., Motte, J. and Andréoletti, L. (2006) Association of Respiratory Picornaviruses with Acute Bronchiolitis in French Infants. Journal of Clinical Virology, 35, 463-466. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2005.11.009
Imamura, T., Fuji, N., Suzuki, A., et al. (2011) Enterovirus 68 among Children with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection, Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17, 1430-1435. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101328
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) Clusters of Acute Respiratory Illness Associated with Human Enterovirus 68—Asia, Europe, and United States, 2008-2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 60(38): 1301-1304.
Jartti, T., Lehtinen, P., Vuorinen, T., Koskenvuo, M. and Ruuskanen, O. (2004) Persistence of Rhinovirus and Enterovirus RNA after Acute Respiratory Illness in Children. Journal of Medical Virology, 72, 695-699. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.20027
Andréoletti, L., Lesay, M., Deschildre, A., Lambert, V., Dewilde, A. and Wattré, P. (2000) Differential Detection of Rhinoviruses and Enteroviruses RNA Sequences Associated with Classical Immunofluorescence Assay Detection of Respiratory Virus Antigens in Nasopharyngeal Swabs from Infants with Bronchiolitis. Journal of Medical Virology, 61, 341-346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1096-9071(200007)61:3<341::AID-JMV10>3.0.CO;2-0
Chia, J. and Chia, A. (2008) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Is Associated with Chronic Enterovirus Infection of the Stomach. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 61, 43-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jcp.2007.050054
Nix, W.A., Oberste, S. and Pallansch, M. (2006) Sensitive, Semi-Nested PCR Amplification of VP1 Sequences for Direct Identification of Enterovirus Serotypes from Clinical Specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 44, 2698-2704. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00542-06
O’Neil, K.M., Pallansch, M.A., Winkelstein, J.A., et al. (1988) Chronic Group A Coxsackievirus Infection in Agammaglobulinemia: Demonstration of Genomic Variation of Serotypically Identical Isolates Persistently Excreted from the Same Patient. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 157, 183-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/157.1.183
Meijer, A., Benschop, K.S., Donker, G.A. and van der Avoort, H.G. (2014) Continued Seasonal Circulation of Enterovirus D68 in the Netherlands, 2011-2014. Eurosurveillance, 19, pii=20935. http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.es2014.19.42.20935
Midgley, C.M., Jackson, M.A., Selvarangan, R., Turabelidze, G., Obringer, E., Johnson, D., et al. (2014) Severe Respiratory Illness Associated with Enterovirus D68—Missouri and Illinois, 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 63, 798-799.
Imamura, T. and Oshitani, H. (2015) Global Reemergence of Enterovirus D68 as an Important Pathogen for Acute Respiratory Infections. Reviews in Medical Virology, 25, 102-114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.1820
Sun, L., Meijer, A., Froeyen, M., et al. (2015) Antiviral Activity of Broad-Spectrum and Enterovirus-Specific Inhibitors against Clinical Isolates of Enterovirus D68. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 59, 7782-7785. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01375-15
Zuo, J., Kye, S., Quinn, K., Cooper, P., Damoiseauux, R. and Krogstad, P. (2016) Discovery of Structurally Diverse Small-Molecule Compounds with Broad Antiviral Activities against Enteroviruses. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 60, 1615-1626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02646-15