All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Soft Sediment Deformation Structures in the Maastrichtian Patti Formation, Southern Bida Basin Nigeria: Implications for the Assessment of Endogenic Triggers in the Maastrichtian Sedimentary Record

DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2016.66036, PP. 410-438

Keywords: Soft Sediment Deformation Structure, Bida Basin, Patti Formation, Tidal/Fluvial Sediments, Fluidization and Liquefaction

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Detailed fieldwork carried out in the southern part of Bida Basin, Nigeria, allowed the documentation of soft sediment deformation structures (SSDS) in the Maastrichtian Patti Formation. The aim of this study is to examine the sedimentary successions, describe and analyse these deformation features, discuss their deformation mechanisms and potential triggers. The Maastrichtian Patti Formation is composed of lithofacies interpreted to have been deposited in tidal and fluvial sedimentary environments. Soft sediment deformation structures recognised in the tidal sediments were clastic dykes, load cast, isolated sand balls, dish-and-pillar structures, convolute lamination, diapiric structures and recumbent folds. Severely deformed cross beds, ring structures, associated sand balls, normal folds and recumbent folds were identified in the fluvial sediments. SSDS recognised were interpreted to have been caused by effects of liquefaction and fluidization. Field observations, facies analysis and morphology of the SSDS indicate that there are relationship between the depositional environments and SSDS. Endogenic processes are considered as the trigger agents and they are represented by rapid sedimentation and overloading, impact of breaking waves, pressure fluctuations caused by turbulent water flow, cyclic stress and current generated by storm waves and changes in water table. The present study did not identify exogenic processes as trigger agent. The occurrence of SSDS in southern Bida Basin strongly favoured a non-tectonic origin but a clear relationship high energy processes in tidal and fluvial depositional environments.


[1]  Allen, J.R.L. (1982) Developments in Sedimentology, Sedimentary Structures Their Character and Physical Basis Volume II. Volume 30, Part B, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 663 p.
[2]  Moretti, M. and Sabato, L. (2007) Recognition of Trigger Mechanisms for Soft-Sediment Deformation in the Pleistocene Lacustrine Deposits of the Sant’ Arcangelo Basin (Southern Italy): Seismic Shock vs. Overloading. Sedimentary Geology, 196, 31-45.
[3]  Owen, G., Moretti, M. and Alfaro, P. (2011) Recognising Triggers for Soft-Sediment Deformation: Current Understanding and Future Directions. Sedimentary Geology, 235, 133-140.
[4]  Lowe, D.R. (1975) Water Escape Structures in Coarse Grained Sediments. Sedimentology, 22, 157-204.
[5]  Maltman, A. (1984) On the Term “Soft-Sediment Deformation”. Journal of Structural Geology, 6, 589-592.
[6]  Van Loon, A.J. (2002) Soft-Sediment Deformations in the Kleszczow Graben (Central Poland). Sedimentary Geology, 147, 57-70.
[7]  Owen, G. and Moretti, M. (2011) Identifying Triggers for Liquefaction-Induced Soft Sediment Deformation in Sands. Sedimentary Geology, 235, 141-147.
[8]  Braide, S.P. (1992) Geological Development, Origin and Energy Mineral Resources Potential of the Lokoja Formation in the Southern Bida Basin. Journal of Mining and Geology, 28, 33-44.
[9]  Akande, S.O., Ojo, O.J., Erdtmann, B.D. and Hetenyi, M. (2005) Paleoenvironments, Organic Petrology and Rock Eval Studies on Source Rock Facies of the Campanian to Maastrichtian Patti Formation, Southern Bida Basin, Nigeria. Sedimentary Geology, 41, 394-406.
[10]  Ojo, O.J. and Akande, S.O. (2009) Sedimentology and Depositional Environments of the Maastrichtian Patti Formation, Southeastern Bida Basin, Nigeria. Cretaceous Research, 30, 1415-1425.
[11]  Ojo, S.B. and Ajakaiye, D.E. (1989) Preliminary Interpretation of Gravity Measurements in the Middle Niger Basin Area, Nigeria. In: Kogbe, C.A., Ed., Geology of Nigeria, 2nd Edition, Elizabethan Publishing Company, Lagos, 347-358.
[12]  Udensi, E.E. and Osazuwa, I.B. (2004) Spectra Determination of Depths to Magnetic Rocks under the Nupe Basin, Nigeria. Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists Bulletin, 17, 22-37.
[13]  Whiteman, A. (1982) Nigeria: Its Petroleum Geology, Resources and Potential. Vol. 1 and 2, Graham and Trotman, London, 349 p.
[14]  Falconer, J.D. (1911) The Geology and Geography of Northern Nigeria. Macmillan, London, 255p.
[15]  Russ, W. (1930) The Minna-Birnin Gwarri Belt. Reports of the Geological Survey of Nigeria, 10-14.
[16]  Jones, H.A. (1958) The Oolitic Ironstone of Agbaja Plateau, Kabba Province. Record of the Geological Survey of Nigeria, 20-43.
[17]  Du Chene, J., Adegoke, O.S. and Adediran, S.A. (1978) Palynology and Foraminifera of the Lokoja Sandstone (Maastrichtian), Bida Basin, Nigeria. Revista Espanola De Micropaleontologia, 10, 379-393
[18]  Ladipo, O., Akande, S.O. and Mucke, A. (1994) Genesis of Ironstones from Middle Niger Sedimentary Basin, Evidence from Sedimentological, Ore Microscopic and Geochemical Studies. Journal of Mining and Geology, 30, 161-168.
[19]  Olaniyan, O. and Olobaniyi, S.B. (1996) Facies Analysis of the Bida Sandstone Formation around Kajita, Nupe Basin, Nigeria. Sedimentary Geology, 23, 253-256.
[20]  Ojo, O.J. and Akande, S.O. (2003) Facies Relationships and Depositional Environments of the Upper Cretaceous Lokoja Formation in the Bida Basin, Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 39, 39-48.
[21]  Miall, A.D. (1992) Alluvial Models. In: Walker, R.G. and James, N.P., Eds., Facies Models Response to Sea Level Change, Geological Association of Canada, St. John’s, 119-142.
[22]  El-Azabi, M.H. and El-Araby, A. (2005) Depositional Facies, Environments and Sequence Stratigraphic Interpretation of the Middle Triassic-Lower Cretaceous (Pre-Late Albian) Succession in Arif El-Naga Anticline, Northeast Sinai, Egypt. Sedimentary Geology, 41, 119-143.
[23]  Miall, A.D. (1985) Architectural-Element Analysis: A New Method of Facies Analysis Applied to Fluvial Deposits. Earth-Science Reviews, 22, 261-308.
[24]  Miall, A.D. (1978) Lithofacies Types and Vertical Profile Models in Braided River Deposits: A Summary. In: Miall, A.D., Ed., Fluvial Sedimentology, Memoir 5, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Calgary, 597-604.
[25]  Cappuzo, N. and Wetzel, A. (2004) Facies and Basin Architecture of the Late Carboniferous Salvan-Dore′naz Continental Basin (Western Alps, Switzerland/France). Sedimentology, 51, 675-697.
[26]  Roberts, E.M. (2007) Facies Architecture and Depositional Environments of the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Southern Utah. Sedimentary Geology, 197, 207-233.
[27]  Montenat, C., Barrier, P., Ott d’Estevou, P. and Hibsch, C. (2007) Seismites: An Attempt at Critical Analysis and Classification. Sedimentary Geology, 196, 5-30.
[28]  Berra, F. and Felletti, F. (2011) Syndepositional Tectonics Recorded by Soft-Sediment Deformation and Liquefaction Structures (Continental Lower Permian Sediments, Southern Alps, Northern Italy): Stratigraphic Significance. Sedimentary Geology, 235, 249-263.
[29]  Montenat, C., Ott D’Estevou, P. and Masse, P. (1987) Tectonic-Sedimentary Characters of the Betic Neogene Basins Evolving in a Crustal Transcurrent Shear Zone (SE Spain). Bulletin Du Centre De Recherches Elf Exploration Production, 11, 1-22.
[30]  Martín-Chivelet, J., Palma, R.M., López-Gómez, J. and Kietzmann, D.A. (2011) Earthquake-Induced Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures in Upper Jurassic Open-Marine Microbialites (Neuquén Basin, Argentina). Sedimentary Geology, 235, 210-221.
[31]  Ezquerro, L., Moretti, M., Liesa, C.L., Luzón, A. and Simón, J.L. (2015) Seismites from a Well Core of Palustrine Deposits as a Tool for Reconstructing the Palaeoseismic History of a Fault. Tectonophysics, 655, 191-205.
[32]  Lowe, D.R. and LoPiccolo, L.D. (1975) The Characteristics and Origins of Dish and Pillar Structures. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 44, 484-501.
[33]  Ghosh, S.K., Pandey, A.K., Prabha Pandey, P., Ray, Y. and Sinha, S. (2012) Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures from the Paleoproterozoic Damtha Group of Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India. Sedimentary Geology, 261-262, 76-89.
[34]  Rijsdijk, K.F. (2001) Density-Driven Deformation Structures in Glycogenic Consolidated Dialects: Examples from Traethy y Mwnt, Cardiganshire, Wales, UK. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 71, 122-135.
[35]  Obermeier, S.F. (1996) Use of Liquefaction-Induced Features for Paleo Seismic Analysis—An Overview of How Seismic Liquefaction Features Can Be Distinguished from Other Features and How Their Origin Can Be Used to Infer the Location and Strength of Holocene Paleo-Earthquakes. Engineering Geology, 44, 1-76.
[36]  Obermeier, S.F. (1998) Liquefaction Evidence for Strong Earthquakes of Holocene and Latest Pleistocene Ages in the States of Indiana and Illinois, USA. Engineering Geology, 50, 227-254.
[37]  Moretti, M., Alfaro, P., Caselles, O. and Canas, J.A. (1999) Modelling Seismites with a Digital Shaking Table. Tectonophysics, 304, 369-383.
[38]  Koc Tasgin, C. (2011) Seismically-Generated Hydroplastic Deformation Structures in the Late Miocene Lacustrine Deposits of the Malatya Basin, Eastern Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 235, 264-276.
[39]  Suter, F., Martinez, J.I. and Velez, M.I. (2011) Holocene Soft-Sediment Deformation of the Santa Fe Sopetran Basin, Northern Colombian Andes: Evidence for Pre-Hispanic Seismic Activity. Sedimentary Geology, 235, 188-199.
[40]  He, B., Qiao, X., Jiao, C., Xu, Z., Cai, Z., Guo, X. and Zhang, Y. (2014) Palaeo-Earthquake Events during the Late Early Palaeozoic in the Central Tarim Basin (NW China): Evidence from Deep Drilling Cores. Geologos, 20, 105-123.
[41]  He, B., Qiao, X., Zhang, Y., Tian, H., Cai, Z., Chen., S. and Zhang, Y. (2015) Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures in the Cretaceous Zhucheng Depression, Shandong Province, East China, Their Character, Deformation Timing and Tectonic Implications. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 110, 101-122.
[42]  Owen, G. (2003) Load Structures: Gravity-Driven Sediment Mobilization in the Shallow Subsurface. In: Van Rensbergen, P., Hillis, R.R., Maltman, A.J. and Morley, C.K., Eds., Subsurface Sediment Mobilization, Special Publications, London, Vol. 216, 21-34.
[43]  Anketell, J.M., Cegla, J. and Dzulynski, S. (1970) On the Deformational Structures in Systems with Reversed Density Gradients. Annales de la Société Géologique de Pologne, 15, 3-29.
[44]  Mills, P.C. (1983) Genesis and Diagnostic Value of Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures—A Review. Sedimentary Geology, 35, 83-104.
[45]  Sanders, J.E. (1960) Origin of Convoluted Laminae. Geological Magazine, 97, 409-421.
[46]  Dzulynski, S. and Smith, A.J. (1963) Convolute Lamination, Its Origin, Preservation and Directional Significance. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 33, 616-627.
[47]  Allen, J.R.L. and Banks, N.L. (1972) An Interpretation and Analysis of Recumbent Folded Deformed cross Bedding. Sedimentology, 19, 257-283.
[48]  Roe, S.L. and Hermansen, M. (2006) New Aspects of Deformed Cross-Strata in Fluvial Sandstones: Examples from Neoproterozoic Formations in Northern Norway. Sedimentary Geology, 186, 283-293.
[49]  Roe, S.L. and Hermansen, M. (2007) New Aspects of Deformed Cross-Strata in Fluvial Sandstone: Examples from Neoproterozoic Formations in Northern Norway-Reply. Sedimentary Geology, 198, 355-358.
[50]  Mazumder, R., van Loon, A.J. and Arima, M. (2006) Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures in the Earth’s Oldest Seismites. Sedimentary Geology, 186, 19-26.
[51]  Tasgin, C.K., Orhan, H., Türkmen, I. and Aksoy, E. (2011) Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures in the Late Miocene S_Elmo Formation around Adiyaman Area, Southeastern Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 235, 277-291.
[52]  Olabode, S.O. (2013) Soft Sediment Deformation Structures in the Maastrichtian Ajali Formation Western Flank of Anambra Basin, Southern Nigeria. Sedimentary Geology, 89, 16-30.
[53]  Alfaro, P., Delgado, J., Estévez, A., Molina, J.M., Moretti, M. and Soria, J.M. (2002) Liquefaction and Fluidization Structures in Messinian Storm Deposits (Bajo Segura Basin, Betic Cordillera, Southern Spain). International Journal of Earth Sciences, 91, 505-513.
[54]  Agyingi, C.M. (1993) Palynological Evidence for a Late Cretaceous Age for Patti Formation, Eastern Bida Basin, Nigeria. Sedimentary Geology, 17, 513-523.
[55]  Abimbola, A.F., Badejoko, T.A., Elueze, A.A. and Akande, S.O. (1999) The Agbaja Ironstone Formation, Nupe Basin, Nigeria. A Product of Replacement of a Kaolinite Precursor. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 5, 375-384.
[56]  Ojo, O.J. and Akande, S.O. (2008) Microfloral Assemblage and Palaeoenvironment of the Upper Cretaceous Patti Formation, Southeastern Bida Basin, Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 44, 71-81.
[57]  Galli, P. (2000) New Empirical Relationships between Magnitude and Distance for Liquefaction. Tectonophysics, 324, 169-187.
[58]  Simms, M.J. (2007) Uniquely Extensive Soft-Sediment Deformation in the Rhaetian of the UK: Evidence for Earthquake or Impact? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 244, 407-423.
[59]  Poldsaar, K. and Ainsaar, L. (2014) Extensive Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures in the Early Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) Shallow Marine Siliciclastic Sediments formed on the Baltoscandian Carbonate Ramp, Northwestern Estonia. Marine Geology, 356, 111-127.
[60]  Jewell, H.E. and Ettensohn, F.R. (2004) An Ancient Seismite Response to Taconianfar-Field Forces: The Cane Run Bed, Upper Ordovician (Trenton) Lexington Limestone, Central Kentucky (USA). Journal of Geodynamics, 37, 487-511.
[61]  Poldsaar, K. and Ainsaar, L. (2015) Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures in the Cambrian (Series 2) Tidal Deposits (NW Estonia): Implications for Identifying Endogenic Triggering Mechanisms in Ancient Sedimentary Record. Palaeoworld, 24, 16-35.
[62]  Greb, S.F. and Archer, A.W. (2007) Soft-Sediment Deformation Produced by Tides in a Meizoseismic Area, Turnagain Arm, Alaska. The Geological Society of America, 35, 435-438.
[63]  Chaney, R.C. and Fang, H.Y. (1991) Liquefaction in the Coastal Environment: An Analysis and Case Histories. Marine Geotechnology, 10, 343-370.
[64]  Alsop, G.I. and Marco, S. (2012) Tsunami and Seiche-Triggered Deformation within Offshore Sediments. Sedimentary Geology, 261-262, 90-107.
[65]  Moretti, M., Soria, J.M., Alfaro, P. and Walsh, N. (2001) Asymmetrical Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Triggered by Rapid Sedimentation in Turbiditic Deposits. Facies, 44, 283-294.
[66]  Alfaro, P., Moretti, M. and Soria, J.M. (1997) Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Induced by Earthquakes (Seismites) in Pliocene Lacustrine Deposits (Guadix-Baza Basin, Central Betic Cordillera). Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 90, 531-540.
[67]  Jones, A.P. and Omoto, K. (2000) Towards Establishing Criteria for Identifying Trigger Mechanisms for Soft-Sediment Deformation: Case Study of Late Pleistocene Lacustrine Sands and Clays, Onokobe and Nakayamadaira Basins, Northeastern Japan. Sedimentology, 47, 1211-1226.
[68]  Dalrymple, R.W. (1979) Wave-Induced Liquefaction: A Modern Example from the Bay of Fundy. Sedimentology, 26, 835-844.
[69]  Foda, A.M., Hunt, J.R. and Chou, H.T. (1993) A Nonlinear Model for the Fluidization of Marine Mud by Waves. Journal of Geophysics Research, 98, 7039-7047.
[70]  Monila, J.M., Alfaro, P., Moretti, M. and Soria, J.M. (1998) Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Induced by Cyclic Stress of Storm Waves in Tempesites (Miocene, Guadalquivir Basin, Spain). Terra Nova, 10, 145-150.
[71]  Chen, J.T. and Lee, H.S. (2013) Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures in Cambrian Siliciclastic and Carbonate Storm Deposits (Shandong Province, China): Differential Liquefaction and Fluidization Triggered by Storm-Wave Loading. Sedimentary Geology, 288, 81-94.
[72]  Chen, J.T., Chough, S.K., Han, Z.Z. and Lee, J.H. (2011) An Extensive Erosion Surface of a Strongly Deformed Limestone Bed in the Gushan and Chaomidian Formations (Late Middle Cambrian to Furongian), Shandong Province, China: Sequence-Stratigraphic Implications. Sedimentary Geology, 233, 129-149.
[73]  Obaje, N.G., Balogu, D.O., Idris-Nda, A., Goro, I.A., Ibrahim, S.I., Musa, M.K., Dantata, S.H., Yusuf, I., Mamud-Dadi, N. and Kolo, I.A. (2013) Preliminary Integrated Hydrocarbon Prospectivity Evaluation of the Bida Basin in North Central Nigeria. Petroleum. Technology Development Journal, 3, 36-65.
[74]  Seilacher, A. (1969) Fault-Grade Beds Interpreted as Seismites. Sedimentology, 13, 155-159.
[75]  Obermeier, S.F., Olson, S.M. and Green, R.A. (2005) Field Occurrences of Liquefaction-Induced Features: A Primer for Engineering Geo-Logic Analysis of Paleoseismic Shaking. Engineering Geology, 76, 209-234.
[76]  Gibert, L., Alfaro, P., Garcia-Tortosa, F.J. and Scott, G. (2011) Superposed Deformed Beds Produced by Single Earthquakes (Tecopa Basin, California): Insights into Paleoseismology. Sedimentary Geology, 235, 148-159.
[77]  Battacharya, H.N. and Battacharya, B. (2010) Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures an Ice-Marginal Storm-Tide Interactive System, Permo-Carboniferous Talchir Formation, Talchir Coal Basin, India. Sedimentary Geology, 223, 380-389.


comments powered by Disqus