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Soft Sediment Deformation Structures in the Maastrichtian Patti Formation, Southern Bida Basin Nigeria: Implications for the Assessment of Endogenic Triggers in the Maastrichtian Sedimentary Record

DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2016.66036, PP. 410-438

Keywords: Soft Sediment Deformation Structure, Bida Basin, Patti Formation, Tidal/Fluvial Sediments, Fluidization and Liquefaction

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Abstract:

Detailed fieldwork carried out in the southern part of Bida Basin, Nigeria, allowed the documentation of soft sediment deformation structures (SSDS) in the Maastrichtian Patti Formation. The aim of this study is to examine the sedimentary successions, describe and analyse these deformation features, discuss their deformation mechanisms and potential triggers. The Maastrichtian Patti Formation is composed of lithofacies interpreted to have been deposited in tidal and fluvial sedimentary environments. Soft sediment deformation structures recognised in the tidal sediments were clastic dykes, load cast, isolated sand balls, dish-and-pillar structures, convolute lamination, diapiric structures and recumbent folds. Severely deformed cross beds, ring structures, associated sand balls, normal folds and recumbent folds were identified in the fluvial sediments. SSDS recognised were interpreted to have been caused by effects of liquefaction and fluidization. Field observations, facies analysis and morphology of the SSDS indicate that there are relationship between the depositional environments and SSDS. Endogenic processes are considered as the trigger agents and they are represented by rapid sedimentation and overloading, impact of breaking waves, pressure fluctuations caused by turbulent water flow, cyclic stress and current generated by storm waves and changes in water table. The present study did not identify exogenic processes as trigger agent. The occurrence of SSDS in southern Bida Basin strongly favoured a non-tectonic origin but a clear relationship high energy processes in tidal and fluvial depositional environments.

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