全部 标题 作者
关键词 摘要

Marketing Religion: The Marketing and Islamic Points of View

DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2016.64041, PP. 444-454

Keywords: Marketing, Religion, Secularization, Consumer Culture, Christianity, Islam

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


The purpose of the present paper is to study the possible application of marketing to promote religion in the specific case of “Islam”. In fact, marketing techniques have been adapted to religious goals since the beginning of the 19th century. But with the rise of the secularization movements in the post-modern era, its application becomes vital to guaranty the survival of religions notably in the Christian case. Islam is facing the same difficulties, such as the decrease of mosque attendance, the decrease of religious commitment, xenophobia and Islamophobia. Our approach was to study marketing application such as defining the 4P’s for the religion of Islam. This would be done based on marketing science and the Islam’s sources: The Holly Quran and Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) Hadiths. In the case of Islamic religion’s sources, and specially in Holly Quran and Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) Hadiths we found many similarities with marketing strategy notably in the choice of promotional variables and the insistence on the importance of religious promotion or Islamic Daawah. So we suggest that the use of marketing techniques is possible and would have two major purposes: Developing Islamic religiousness and repositioning Islam’s image as an opened, tolerant and modern religion.


[1]  Kotler, P. and Levy, J.S. (1969) Broadening the Concept of Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 33, 10-15.
[2]  Usinier, J.C. and Stolz, J. (2014) Religions as Brands: New Perspectives on the Marketization of Religion and Spirituality. Ashgate Publishing Limited, Routledge.
[3]  Einstein, M. (2008) Brands of Faith Marketing Religion in a Commercial Age. Ed Routeledge, London and New York.
[4]  Santoro, A. and Siliman, D. (2015) Religion and the Marketplace in the United States. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[5]  Kotler, P., Roberto, N. and Lee, N. (2002) Social Marketing: Improving the Quality of Life. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.
[6]  Kotler, P. and Zaltman, G. (1971) Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change. Journal of Marketing, 35, 8-12.
[7]  Tamimi, A. (2002) The Origins of Arab Secularism. In: Tamimi, A. and Esposito, J.L. Eds., Islam and Secularism in the Middle Limited, Chapter 2, New York University Press.
[8]  Whitehouse, H. (2004) Modes of Religiosity: Of Cognitive Theory of Religious Transmission. Altamina Press.
[9]  Geertz, C. (1973) The Interpretation of Culture. Basic Books, New York.
[10]  Goody, J. (1961) Religion and Ritual: The Definitional Problem. The British Journal of Sociology, 12, 142-164.
[11]  Swatos Jr., W.H. (1998) Encyclopedia of Religion and Society. Altamira Press.
[12]  McDaniel, S.W. and Burnett, J.J. (1990) Consumer Religiosity and Retail Store Evaluative Criteria. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 18, 101-112.
[13]  Sheth, J.N. and Mittal, B. (2004) Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective. 2nd Edition, South-Western, USA.
[14]  Mokhlis, S. (2009) Relevancy and Measurement of Religiosity in Consumer Behavior Research. International Business Research, 2, 75-84.
[15]  Greeley, A.M. (1963) A Note on The origins of Religion Differences. Journal for The scientific Study of Religion, 3, 21-31.
[16]  Gallagher, S. and Tierney, W. (2013) Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine. Ricks J Editions, Springer, New York.
[17]  Thoresen, C.E. (1998) Spirituality, Health, and Science. The Coming Revival? In: Roth-Roemer, S., Kurpius, S.E.R. and Carmin, C.N., Eds., The Emerging Role of Counseling Psychology in Health Care, W. W. Norton, New York, 409-431.
[18]  The American Heritage (2000) Dictionary of the English Language. 4th Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, Turtleback.
[19]  Tschannen, O. (1992) Les théories de la secularization. Librairie Droz, Genève.
[20]  Wilson, B. (1998) Secularization Thesis: Criticism and Rebuttals. In: Laermans, R., Wilson, B.R., Dobbelaere, K. and Billiet, J., Eds., Secularization and Social Integration: Papers in Honor of Karel Dobbelaere, Chapter 6, Leuven University Press, Leuven, 45-65.
[21]  Charon, A. (1996) Religion, Secularism, Modernity Francophone Experiences in North America. Press of the University Laval, Québec City.
[22]  Abidi, L. (2000) Secularism: Misunderstandings and Representations. Mediterranean Confluence, No. 32, 35-41.
[23]  Brown, L.S. (1993) The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism, and Anarchism. Black Rose Books, Montreal.
[24]  Belk, R.W., Wallendorf, M. and Sherry Jr., J.F. (1989) The Sacred and the Profane in Consumer Behavior: Theodicy on the Odyssey. Journal of Consumer Research, 16, 1-38.
[25]  Belk, R.W. (1989) Materialism and the Modern U.S. Christmas. In: Hirschman, E.C., Eds., Special Volumes—Interpretive Consumer Research, Association for Consumer Research, Provo, 115-135.
[26]  Davis, T. and Yip, J. (2004) Reconciling Christianity and Modernity: Australian Youth and Religion. Advances in Consumer Research, 31, 113-117.
[27]  Triandis, H.C. (2001) Individualism-Collectivism and Personality. Journal of Personality, 69, 909-914.
[28]  Cohen, A.B. and Hill, P.C. (2007) Religion as Culture: Religious Individualism and Collectivism among American Catholics, Jews, and Protestants. Journal of Personality, 75, 709-742.
[29]  Hastings, G. (2007) Social Marketing: Why Should the Devil Have All the Best Tunes? Elsevier Ltd, Amsterdam.
[30]  Hastings, G., Angus, K. and Bryant, C. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Social Marketing. SAGE Publications Ltd, Thousand Oaks.
[31]  Hastings, G. (2003) Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. Part 11, Kessinger Publishing, Whitefish.
[32]  Ben Elmostafa, O. (2006) The Islamic Movement in Morocco: Their Modes of Action and Organization. L’Harmattan, Paris.
[33]  Akgüngör, Ç. and Bayraktar, S.U. (2005) Secularization, Democratization and Muslim World: Change Process. Cahiers d’Etudes on the Eastern Mediterranean and the World Turco—Iranian [Online], 35.
[34]  Oxford English Dictionary: -phobia, comb. Form. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[35]  Bourne, E.J. (2011) The Anxiety & Phobia Workbook. 5th Edition, New Harbinger Publications, Oakland, 50-51.
[36]  Echebarria-Echabe, A. and Guede, E.F. (2007) A New Measure of Anti-Arab Prejudice: Reliability and Validity Evidence. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 1077-1091.
[37]  Helbling, M. (2012) Islamophobia in the West: An Introduction. In: Helbling, M., Ed., Islamophobia in the West. Measuring and Explaining Individual Attitudes, Routledge, London, 1-18.
[38]  Bistolfi, R. (2000) Islam and Secularism: Golf European. Mediterranean Confluence, No. 32, 7-12.
[39]  Mallika, N. (2009) The Eleventh Commandment: An Introduction to Religio-Marketing. Business and Economics, VDM Verlag, Saarbrücken.
[40]  Stolz, J. (Ed.) (2008) Salvation Goods and Religious Markets: Theory and Applications.
[41]  Iannaccone, L.R., Finke, R. and Stark, R. (1997) Deregulating Religion: The Economics of Church and State, Economic Inquiry. Huntington Beach, 35, 350-365.
[42]  Cooke, P. (2008) Branding Faith: Why Some Churches and Non Profits Impact Culture and Others Don’t. Regal, Ventura.
[43]  Durand, A. (2005) Islam at the Risk of Secularism Emergencies and Disruptions. L’Harmattan, Paris.
[44]  De Be’rulle, C. (1884) The Apostle of the Incarnate Word or Elevations on the Magnitudes of Jesus Christ. Paul Mellier, Paris.
[45]  Sanson, H. (2008) Islam and Christianity in the Mirror One Another: A Christian Approach to Algeria. L’Harmattan, Paris.
[46]  Hellmans, S. (1998) Secularization in a Religious Modernity. In: Laermans, R., Wilson, B.R., Dobbelaere, K. and Billiet, J., Eds., Secularization and Social Integration: Papers in Honor of Karel Dobbelaere, Chapter 7, Leuven University Press, Leuven, 67-82.
[47]  Kuzma, A., Kuzma, A. and Kuzma, J. (2009) How Religion HAS Embraced Marketing and the Implications for Business. Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 2, 1-10.
[48]  Stevens, R.E., Loudon, D.L., Cole, H. and Wrenn, B. (2012) Concise Encyclopedia of Church and Religious Organization Marketing. Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, Abingdon.
[49]  Sargean, A. and Wymer, W. (2007) The Routledge Companion to Nonprofit Marketing. Routledge, Abingdon.
[50]  Al-Uthaymeen, M. (2006) Youth: Problems and Solutions. Editions Anas, Riyadh.
[51]  Sood, J. and Nasu, Y. (1995) Religiosity and Nationality: An Exploratory Study of Their Effect on Consumer Behaviour in Japan and the United States. Journal of Business Research, 34, 1-9.
[52]  Worthington Jr., E.L., Wade, N.G., Hight, T.L., Ripley, J.S., McCullough, M.E., Berry, J.W., Schmitt, M.M., Berry, J.T., Bursley, K.H. and O’Connor, L. (2003) The Religious Commitment Inventory—10: Development, Refinement, and Validation of a Brief Scale for Research and Counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 84-96.
[53]  Al-Ani, S.H. and Tel, S.A. (2009) Book of Faith. Islamic Book Trust, Kuala Lampur.
[54]  Donovan, R. and Henley, N. (2010) Principles and Practice of Social Marketing: An International Perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[55]  Herron, D. (1997) Marketing Nonprofit Programs and Services: Proven and Practical Strategies to Get More Customers, Members, and Donors. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
[56]  Goldberg, M., Fishbein, M. and Middlestat, S. (Eds.) (1997) Social Marketing: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives. The Academy for Educational Development, Washington DC.
[57]  Al-Sheha, A. (2013) How Does One Become Muslim. Islam Land, Saudi Arabia.
[58]  Sidiqui, A. (1973) Sahih Muslim. Peace Vision.
[59]  Nassar As-Salafi, A.H. (2010) Description of Paradisein the Glorius Quran. Darussalam, Riyadh.


comments powered by Disqus