Aim: There were no data about esophageal cancer in Burundi. The aim of the study was to highlight the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological aspects of the esophageal cancer. Method: A retrospective study over a 24-years period (from January 1988 to December 2011) was carried out at Kamenge university hospital, including patients with esophageal cancer. The cases were selected on basis of the histological evidence of the cancer. Results: A total of 34 cases were retrieved and included for analysis. Among them, 24 patients (70.5%) were males. The esophageal cancer constituted 8.6% of digestive cancers over the period of the study. The average age was 50.9 years. It was revealed by dysphagia in 32 patients (94.1%) and was concomitantly metastatic in 12 patients. The squamous cell carcinoma was 30 cases (88.2%). 27 patients underwent a curative resection, but the outcome and prognosis were poor. In-hospital mortality and morbidity rates were respectively 8.8% and 17.7%. Conclusion: The present study showed evidence that the esophageal cancer in our country had the same characteristics and distribution as well as in developing countries. It had a poor prognosis and efforts had to be done in the early cancer detection.
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