All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


恋人间实际亲密度对自我面孔优势效应的影响
The Effect of Genuine Intimacy between Lovers on Self-Face Advantage

DOI: 10.12677/AP.2015.512098, PP. 753-761

Keywords: 自我面孔识别,自我优势效应,自我边界,实际亲密度
Self-Face Recognition
, Self-Advantage, Self-Boundary, Genuine Intimacy

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

为了探讨实际亲密度对自我面孔优势效应的影响,本研究从大学和社会上招募59名正处于恋爱关系中的被试,通过实际亲密度量表将其分为高实际亲密度组和低实际亲密度组,并采用面孔再认任务中的外显任务与内隐任务对其进行施测。实验结果显示:无论在外显任务还是内隐任务中,实际亲密度与面孔类型之间均存在显著的交互作用,即自我面孔优势只存在于低实际亲密度的条件下;在高实际亲密度的背景下,自我面孔优势消失。结果表明,个体与恋人之间的实际亲密度影响自我面孔优势效应的稳定性,即实际亲密度对知觉层面的自我边界同样具有调节作用。
In order to investigate whether genuine intimacy has an effect on the stability of the self-face ad-vantage by modulating self-boundary at the perceptual level, a total of 59 participants currently involved in romantic relationships were investigated by the explicit and implicit face-recognition tasks, and were sorted into two levels (high vs. low) by the Genuine Intimacy Scale. The results showed that regardless of the attention level (explicit vs. implicit task), participants in the low genuine intimacy group responded faster to their own face than the faces of lovers, while the ad-vantage effect was eliminated in the high genuine intimacy group. In other words, the perceptual boundary stretched under the condition of high genuine intimacy, and accordingly, the self face is less differentiated from face of lovers for participants with high genuine intimacy than for ones with low genuine intimacy. In conclusion, the self-face advantage is influenced by genuine intimacy, which suggests that genuine intimacy also plays a significant role in modulating boundaries of self-face perception.

References

[1]  关丽丽, 张庆林, 齐铭铭, 侯燕, 杨娟(2012). 自我概念威胁以及与重要他人的比较共同削弱自我面孔优势效应. 心理学报, 44(6), 789-796.
[2]  韩世辉, 张逸凡(2012). 自我概念心理表征的文化神经科学研究. 心理科学进展, 20(5), 33-640.
[3]  刘嘉庆, 区永东, 吕晓薇, 蒋毅(2005). 华人人际关系的概念化——针对中国香港地区大学生的实证研究. 心理学报, 37(1), 122-125.
[4]  王凌云, 张明, 隋洁(2011). 自我参照框架决定了自我面孔优势效应的出现. 心理学报, 43(5), 494-499.
[5]  杨宜音(1999). 自我与他人: 四种关于自我边界的社会心理学研究述要. 心理学动态, 7(3), 58-62.
[6]  杨宜音(2001). “自己人”: 一项有关中国人关系分类的个案研究. 载于杨中芳(主编), 中国人的人际关系、情感与信任 (页131-157). 台北: 远流出版社.
[7]  杨宜音(2008). 关系化还是类别化: 中国人我们概念形成的社会心理机制探讨. 中国社会科学, 4, 1-14.
[8]  杨中芳(1999). 人际关系与人际情感的构念化. 载于杨国枢(主编), 本土心理学研究(页105-197). 台北: 桂冠图书公司.
[9]  周丽, 苏彦捷(2008). 实际亲密度对恋人参照效应的影响. 心理学报, 40(4), 487-495.
[10]  Andersen, S. M., Chen, S., & Miranda, R. (2002). Significant Others and the Self. Self and Identity, 1, 159-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/152988602317319348
[11]  Aron, A., & Aron, E. N. (2009). Self-Expansion Model. In H. T. Reis, & S. Sprecher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Human Relationships. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412958479.n466
[12]  Aron, A., & Fraley, B. (1999). Relationship Closeness as In-cluding Others in the Self: Cognitive Underpinnings and Measures. Social Cognition, 17, 140-160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/soco.1999.17.2.140
[13]  Aron, A., Aron, E. A., & Smollan, D. (1992). Inclusion of Other in the Self Scale and the Structure of Interpersonal Closeness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 596-612.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.63.4.596
[14]  Aron, A., Aron, E. A., Tudor, M., & Nelson, G. (1991). Close Relationships as Including Other in the Self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 241-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.60.2.241
[15]  Aron, A., Mclaughlin-Volpe, T., Mashek, D., Lewandowski, G., Wright, S. C., & Aron, E. N. (2004). Including Others in the Self. European Review of Social Psychology, 15, 101-132.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10463280440000008
[16]  Brédart, S., Delchambre, M., & Laureys, S. (2006). One’s Own Face Is Hard to Ignore. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 46-52.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470210500343678
[17]  Carlo, G., Roesch, S. C., Knight, G. P., & Koller, S. H. (2001). Between- or Within-Culture Variation? Culture Group as a Moderator of the Relations between Individual Differences and Resource Allocation Preferences. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 559-579.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(01)00094-6
[18]  Christina, M. B., Steven, G. Y., & Allen, R. M. (2009). See-ing Close Others as We See Ourselves: One’s Own Self-Com- plexity Is Reflected in Perceptions of Meaningful Others. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 515-523.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2009.02.005
[19]  Dehart, T., Pelham, B., Fiedorowicz, L., Carvallo, M., & Gabriel, S. (2011). Including Others in the Implicit Self: Implicit Evaluation of Significant Others. Self and Identity, 10, 127-135.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15298861003687880
[20]  Devue, C., & Brédart, S. (2011). The Neural Correlates of Visual Self-Recognition. Consciousness and Cognition, 20, 40-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2010.09.007
[21]  Gardner, W. L., Gabriel, S., & Hochschild, L. (2002). When You and I Are “We”, You Are Not Threatening: The Role of Self-Expansion in Social Comparison. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 239-251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.82.2.239
[22]  Geertz, C. (1973). The Intepretation of Cultures. New York: Basie Books.
[23]  Hong, Y., & Mallorie, L. M. (2004). A Dynamic Constructivist Approach to Culture: Lessons Learned from Personality Psychology. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 59-67.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2003.09.003
[24]  Hong, Y., Morris, M. W., Chiu, C., & Benet-Martinez, V. (2000). Multicultural Minds: A Dynamic Constructivist Approach to Culture and Cognition. American Psychologist, 55, 709-720.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.7.709
[25]  Keenan, J. P., McCutcheon, B., Sanders, G., Freund, S., Gallup, G. G., & Pascual-Leone, A. (1999). Left Hand Advantage in a Self-Face Recognition Task. Neuropsychologia, 37, 1421-1425.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0028-3932(99)00025-1
[26]  Keenan, J. P., Nelson, A., O’Connor, M., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2001). Self-Recognition and the Right Hemisphere. Nature, 409, 305.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35053167
[27]  Keenan, J. P., Wheeler, M. A., Gallup Jr., G. G., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2000). Self-Recognition and the Right Prefrontal Cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 338-344.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01521-7
[28]  Keyes, H., Brady, N., Reilly, R. B., & Foxe, J. J. (2010). My Face or Yours? Event-Related Potential Correlates of Self-Face Processing. Brain and Cognition, 72, 244-254.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2009.09.006
[29]  Kim, M. S., Smith, D. H., & Gu, Y. (1999). Medical Decision Making and Chinese Patients’ Self-Construals. Health Communication, 11, 249-260.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327027HC110307
[30]  Kircher, T. T., Senior, C., Phillips, M. L., Rabe-Hesketh, S., Benson, P. J., Bullmore, E. T., et al. (2001). Recognizing One’s Own Face. Cognition, 78, B1-B15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(00)00104-9
[31]  Kumashiro, M., & Sedikides, C. (2005). Taking on Board Liability-Focused Information: Close Positive Relationships as a Self-Bolstering Resource. Psychological Science, 16, 732-739.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01603.x
[32]  Lau, K. H. (2005). Indigenous Modeling on Chi-nese Interpersonal Behaviors by Using Guanxi. Master’s Thesis, Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong.
[33]  Liew, S. L., Ma, Y., Han, S. H., & Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2011). Who's Afraid of the Boss: Cultural Differences in Social Hierarchies Modulate Self-Face Recognition in Chinese and Americans. PLoS ONE, 6, e16901.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016901
[34]  Ma, Y., & Han, S. (2010). Why Respond Faster to the Self than Others? An Implicit Positive Association Theory of Self Advantage during Implicit Face Recognition. Journal of Experi-mental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36, 619-633.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015797
[35]  Ma, Y., & Han, S. (2012). Is the Self Always Better than a Friend? Self-Face Recognition in Christians and Atheists. PLoS ONE, 7, e37824.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037824
[36]  Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (2003). Culture, Self, and the Reality of the Social. Psychological Inquiry, 14, 277-283.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1047840X.2003.9682893
[37]  Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (2010). Cultures and Selves: A Cycle of Mutual Constitution. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 420-430.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691610375557
[38]  Ninomiya, H., Onitsuka, T., Chen, C. H. O., Sato, E., & Tashiro, N. (1998). P300 in Response to the Subject’s Own Face. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 52, 519-522.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1819.1998.00445.x
[39]  Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., Greck, M., Bermpohl, F., Do-browolny, H., & Panksepp, J. (2006). Self-Referential Processing in Our Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Imaging Studies on the Self. Neuroimage, 31, 440-457.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.002
[40]  Oatley, K., Keltner, D., & Jenkins, J. M. (2006). Under-standing Emotions (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
[41]  Pohlmann, C., & Hannover, B. (2006). Who Shapes the Self of Independents and Interdependents? Explicit and Implicit Measures of the Self’s Relatedness to Family, Friends and Partner. European Journal of Personality, 20, 525-547.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/per.599
[42]  Sehmitz, T. W., Kawahara-Baecus, T. N., & Johnson, S. C. (2004). Metacog-nitive Evaluation, Self-Relevance, and the Right Prefrontal Cortex. Neuroimage, 22, 941-947.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.02.018
[43]  Sugiura, M., Kawashima, R., Nakamura, K., Okada, K., Kato, T., Nakamura, A., et al. (2000). Passive and Active Recognition of One’s Own Face. Neuroimage, 11, 36-48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/nimg.1999.0519
[44]  Sui, J., & Han, S. (2007). Self-Construal Priming Modulates Neural Substrates of Self-Awareness. Psychological Science, 18, 861-866.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01992.x
[45]  Sui, J., & Humphreys, G. W. (2013). The Boundaries of Self Face Perception: Response Time Distributions, Perceptual Categories, and Decision Weighting. Visual Cognition, 21, 415-445.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13506285.2013.800621
[46]  Sui, J., Liu, C. H., & Han, S. (2009). Cultural Dif-ference in Neural Mechanisms of Self-Recognition. Social Neuroscience, 4, 402-411.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470910802674825
[47]  Symons, C. S., & Johnson, B. T. (1997). The Self-Reference Effect in Memory: A Meta-Analysis. Psychology Bulletin, 121, 371-394.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.121.3.371
[48]  Taylor, M. J., Arsalidou, M., Bayless, S. J., Morris, D., Evans, J. W., & Barbeau, E. J. (2009). Neural Correlates of Personally Familiar Faces: Parents, Partner and Own Faces. Human Brain Mapping, 30, 2008-2020.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20646
[49]  Tong, F., & Nakayama, K. (1999). Robust Representations for Faces: Evidence from Visual Search. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 25, 1016-1035.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.25.4.1016
[50]  Uddin, L. Q., Kaplan, J. T., Molnar-Szakacs, I., Zaidel, E., & Iacoboni, M. (2005). Self-Face Recognition Activates a Frontoparietal “Mirror” Network in the Right Hemisphere: An Event-Related fMRI Study. Neuroimage, 25, 926-935.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.12.018
[51]  Yang, Y. Y., Chen, M. Q., Chen, W. Q., Ying, X. P., Wang, B., Wang, J. X., & Kolstad, A. (2010). Effects of Boundary- Permeated Self and Patriotism on Social Participation in the Beijing Olympic Games. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 13, 109-117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-839X.2010.01306.x
[52]  Zhu, Y., Qi, J., & Zhang, J. (2004). Self Identification in Chinese Students. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 36, 442-447.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal