All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Out of Plane Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Filled with Diamond Powder

DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2016.62005, PP. 41-57

Keywords: Carbon Fibers, Thermal Conductivity, Finite Element Analysis (FEA), Micro-Mechanics, Thermal Measurements

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Highly conductive fillers have a strong influence on improving the poor out of plane thermal conductivity of carbon fiber reinforced composites. The objective of this study has been to investigate the role of the diamond powder (DP) in enhancing the out-of-plane thermal conductivity of the woven composites. Samples of the standard modulus T300 carbon fiber composite with 44% and 55% fiber volume fraction and the high modulus YS90A carbon fiber composite with 50% volume fraction were fabricated with their matrices comprising of neat epoxy and different loading of diamond powder within epoxy resin. Steady state thermal conductivity measurements were carried out and it was found from the measurements that the out of plane thermal conductivity of the standard modulus composite increased by a factor of 2.3 with 14% volume fraction of diamond powder in the composite while the out of plane thermal conductivity of the high modulus composite increased by a factor of 2.8 with 12% volume fraction of diamond powder in the composite. Finite Element Modeling (FEM) with the incorporation of microstructural characteristics is presented and good consistency between the measurements and FEM results were observed.


[1]  Seungjin, H. and Chung, D.D.L. (2011) Increasing the Through-Thickness Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Fiber Polymermatrix Composite by Curing Pressure Increase and Filler Incorporation. Composites Science and Technology, 71, 1944-1952.
[2]  Lyndon, E. and Philip, B. (2008) The CERN Large Hadron Collider: Accelerator and Experiments. Journal of Instrumentation, 3, S08001.
[3]  ATLAS Collaboration (2008) The ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Journal of Instrumentation, 3, S08003.
[4]  ATLAS Collaboration (2010) ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Technical Design Report. CERN-LHCC-2010-013. ATLAS- TDR-19.
[5]  Devendra, K. and Rangaswamy, T. (2012) Evaluation of Thermal Properties of E-Glass/Epoxy Composites Filled By Different Filler Materials. International Journal of Computational Engineering Research, 2, 1708-1714.
[6]  Srinivasan, M., Maettig, P., Glitza, K.W., Sanny, B. and Schumacher, A. (2014) Multiscale Calculation for Increasing the Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Fiber Composite with Diamond Powder. Proceedings of XLII International Summer School Conference Advanced Problems in Mechanics (APM 2014), 481-490.
[7]  Ahmad, H., Crocombe, A.D. and Smith, P.A. (2012) Physically Based Finite Element Strength Prediction in Notched Woven Laminates under Quasi-Static Loading. Plastics, Rubber and Composites, 42, 93-100.
[8]  Mallick, P.K. (1993) Fiber-Reinforced Composites-Materials, Manufacturing, and Design. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.
[9]  University of Tennessee Space Institute. Carbon Fiber Production.
[10]  Scott, E.P. and Beck, J.V. (1992) Estimation of Thermal Properties in Epoxy Matrix/Carbon Fiber Com-posite Materials. Journal of Composite Materials, 26, 132-149.
[11]  Seungjin, H., Jan, T.L., Yasuhiro, Y. and Chung, D.D.L. (2008) Enhancing the Thermal Conductivity and Compressive Modulus of Carbon Fiber Polymermatrix Composites in the Through-Thickness Direction by Nanostructuring the Interlaminar Interface with Carbon Black. CARBON, 46, 1060-1071.
[12]  Schuster, J., Heider, D., Sharp, K. and Glowania, M. (2008) Thermal Conductivities of Three-Dimensionally Woven Fabric Composites. Composites Science and Technology, 68, 2085-2091.
[13]  Hong, J.H., Park, D.W. and Shim, S.E. (2010) A Review on Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Composites Using Carbon-Based Fillers: Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Fibers. Carbon Letters, 11, 347-356.
[14]  Song, S.H., Park, K.H., Kim, B.H., Choi, Y.W., Jun, G.H., Lee, D.J., Kong, B.S., Paik, K.W. and Jeon, S. (2013) En-hanced Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy-Graphene Composites by Using Non-Oxidized Graphene Flakes with Non-Covalent Functionalization. Advanced Materials, 25, 732-737.
[15]  Cui, W., Du, F., Zhao, J., Zhang, W., Yang, Y., Xie, X. and Mai, Y. (2011) Improving Thermal Conductivity While Retaining High Electrical Resistivity of Epoxy Composites by Incorporating Silica-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. Carbon, 49, 495-500.
[16]  Fusao, H., Hiroyuki, K. and Yoshitaka, T. (2011) Synthesis of a Polymer Composite with Networked α-Alumina Fiber and Evaluation of Its Thermal Conductivity. Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, 119, 601-604.
[17]  Biercuk, M.J., Llaguno, M.C., Radosavljevic, M., Hyun, J.K. and Johnson, A.T. (2002) Carbon Nanotube Composites for Thermal Management. Applied Physics Letters, 80, 2767-2769.
[18]  Gordeye, S.A., Macedo, F.J., Ferrerira, J.A., van Hattum, F.W.J. and Bernardo, C.A. (2000) Transport Properties of Polymer-Vapor Grown Carbon Fiber Composites. Physica B: Condensed Matter, 279, 33-36.
[19]  Pierson, H.O. (1993) Handbook of Carbon, Graphite, Diamond and Fullerenes Properties, Processing and Applications. William Andrew Publishing, Noyes.
[20]  Yang, S., Lozano, K., Lomeli, A., Foltz, H.D. and Jones, R. (2005) Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of Carbon Nanofiber/LCP Composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 36, 691-697.
[21]  Patton, R.D., Pittman Jr., C.U., Wang, L. and Hil, J.R.L. (1999) Vapor Grown Carbon Fiber Composites with Epoxy and Poly(phenylene sulfide) Matrices. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 30, 1081-1091.
[22]  Xing, Y., Cao, W., Li, W., Chen, H., Wang, M., Wei, H., Hu, D., Chen, M. and Li, Q. (2015) Carbon Anotube/Cu Nanowires/Epoxy Composite Mats with Improved Thermal and Electrical Conductivity. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 15, 3265-3270.
[23]  Huang, H., Liu, C.H., Wu, Y. and Fan, S. (2005) Aligned Carbon Nanotube Films for Thermal Management. Advanced Materials, 17, 1652-1656.
[24]  Koo, J.H. (2006) Polymer Nanocomposites: Processing, Characterization, and Applications. McGraw-Hill, New York.
[25]  Novoselov, K.S., Geim, A.K., Morozov, S.V., Jiang, D., Zhang, Y., Dubonos, S.V., Grigorieva, I.V. and Firsov, A.A. (2004) Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films. Science, 306, 666-669.
[26]  Lee, C., Wei, X.D., Kysar, J.W. and Hone, J. (2008) Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene. Science, 321, 385-388.
[27]  Balandin, A.A., Ghosh, S., Bao, W.Z., Calizo, I., Teweldebrhan, D., Miao, F. and Lau, C.N. (2008) Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Layer Graphene. Nano Letters, 8, 902-907.
[28]  Zhu, Y.W., Murali, S., Stoller, M.D., Ganesh, K.J., Cai, W.W., Ferreira, P.J., Pirkle, A., Wallace, R.M., Cychosz, K.A., Thommes, M., Su, D., Stach, E.A. and Ruoff, R.S. (2011) Carbon Based Super Capacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene. Science, 332, 1537-1541.
[29]  Stanford Advanced Materials. Advantages and Disadvantages of Graphene.
[30]  Rakha, S.A., Khan, R.R., Khurram, A.A., Fayyaz, A., Zakaullah, M. and Munir, A. (2013) Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites with Low Content of Diamond Particles. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 127, 4079-4085.
[31]  Cytec Engineered Materials. Thornel T300 PAN-Based Fiber. Technical Data.
[32]  Nippon Graphite Fiber Corporation. Pitch Based Carbon Fiber—GRANOC YARN YS-A Series. Technical Data.
[33]  N.N. (2013) Standard Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Solids by Means of the Guarded-Comparative-Longi- tudinal Heat Flow Technique. ASTM E 1225-04.
[34]  Laubitz, M.J. (1984) Axial Heat Flow Methods of Measuring Thermal Conductivity. In: Cezairliyan, A., Maglic, K.D. and Peletsky, V.E., Eds., Compendium of Thermophysical Property Measurement Methods, Vol. 1, Plenum Press, New York and London, 11-59.
[35]  Sun, C.T. and Vaidya, R.S. (1996) Prediction of Composite Properties from a Representative Volume Element. Composites Science and Technology, 56, 171-179.
[36]  Maligno, A.R., Warrior, N.A. and Long, A.C. (2009) Effects of Inter-Fiber Spacing on Damage Evolution in Unidirectional (UD) Fiber-Reinforced Composites. European Journal of Mechanics—A/Solids, 28, 768-776.
[37]  Yang, L., Yan, Y., Ran, Z. and Liu, Y. (2013) A New Method for Generating Random Fiber Distributions for Fiber Reinforced Composites. Composites Science and Technology, 76, 14-20.
[38]  Math2Market GmbH. GeoDict for Composites.
[39]  e-Xstream Engineering. Digimat in Multi-Scale Analyses.
[40]  Melro, A.R., Camanho, P.P. and Pinho, S.T. (2008) Generation of Random Distribution of Fibers in Long-Fiber Reinforced Composites. Composites Science and Technology, 68, 2092-2102.
[41]  Dassault Systemes Simulia Corp. (2012) Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual, Version 6.12. Dassault Systemes, Providence.
[42]  Tu, S.T., Cai, W.Z., Yin, Y. and Ling, X. (2005) Numerical Simulation of Saturation Behavior of Physical Properties in Composites with Randomly Distributed Second-Phase. Journal of Composite Materials, 39, 617-631.
[43]  Stauffer, D. and Aharony, A. (1991) Introduction to Percolation Theory. 2nd Edition, Taylor and Francis, London.
[44]  Scher, H. and Zallen, R. (1970) Critical Density in Percolation Processes. Journal of Chemical Physics, 53, 3759.
[45]  SAATI. Cyanate Ester Matrix.
[46]  Ament, K.A., Kessler, M.R. and Akinc, M. (2011) Cyanate Ester-Alumina Nanoparticle Suspensions: Effect of Alumina Concentration on Viscosity and Cure Behavior. Polymer Engineering & Science, 51, 1409-1417.


comments powered by Disqus