Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) project that is being conducted at the National Oilseed Processing
Research Institute (NOPRI) aims at exploiting the genetic diversity and associated phenotypic
variation in the investigated basil germplasm and evaluating key factors such as variety,
plant ontogeny and plant parts that affect yield, chemical constituents, aroma and flavor of essential
oils. This paper discussed the variability inessential oils content and chemical constituents of
the aerial plant parts of the basil. An open-air pot experiment was carried out using three accessions
provided by Agricultural Research Corporation-Genetic Resources Unit, Sudan. The essential
oils were hydro distilled from the aerial parts, flowers, leaves, stems, using Clevenger apparatus.
The chemical constituents of the essential oils were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass
Spectrometry (GC-MS). As the hydro distillation yielded no oil from the stem, we present only the
results for leaves and flowers. The results revealed that the essential oil content varied with a
range of 0.29% to 0.33% for flowers and 0.32% to 0.48% for leaves. As usual, the content of essential
oils was higher in leaves than in flowers. The Silate-Egyptian accession had the lowest essential
oil content obtained from leaves and flowers. However, South Darfur accession from Sudan
had the highest oil content but did not significantly differ from Kennana accession. Several oil
components were identified based upon comparison of their mass spectral data with those of reference
compounds published in literature or stored in a computer library. The combined GC-MS analysis showed that methyl eugenol was the major constituent of the essential oil of Kennana accession.
While the major constituent of essential oil of South-Darfur and Silate-Egyptian accessions
were germacrene and linalool, respectively.
Khalid, H. Abdalla, W.E., Abdelgadir, H., Opatz, T. and Efferth, T. (2012) Gems from Traditional North-African Medicine: Medicinal and Aromatic Plants from Sudan. Natural Products and Bioprospecting, 2, 92-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13659-012-0015-2
Paton, A. Harley, R.M. and Harley, M.M. (1999) Ocimum: An Overview of Relationships and Classification. In: Holm, Y. and Hiltunen, R., Eds., Medicinal and Aromatic Plants—Industrial Profiles, Harwood Academic, Amsterdam, 1-38.
Nurzynska-Wierda, R., Bogucka-Kocka, A. Kowalski, R. and Borowski, B. (2012) Changes in the Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Depending on the Plant Growth Stages. Chemija, 23, 216-222.
Chiang, L.C., Cheng, P.W. and Chiang, W. (2005) Antiviral Activities of Extracts and Selected Pure Constituents of Ocimum basilicum. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 32, 811-816. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2005.04270.x
Manosroi, J., Dhumtanom, P. and Manosroi, A. (2006) Anti-Proliferative Activity of Essential Oil Extracted from Thai Medicinal Plants on KB and P388 Cell Lines. Cancer Letters, 235, 114-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2005.04.021
Tohti, I., Tursun, M., Umar, A, Turdi, S., Imin, H. and Moore, N. (2006) Aqueous Extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. (Sweet Basil) Decrease Platelet Aggregation Induced by ADP and Thrombin in Vitro and Rats Arterio-Venous Shunt Thrombosis in Vivo. Thrombosis Research, 118, 73-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2005.12.011
Saha, S., Dhar, T.N., Sengupta, C. and Ghosh, P.D. (2013) Biological Activities of Essential Oils and Methanol Extracts of Five Ocimum Species against Pathogenic Bacteria. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 31, 194-202.
Azhari, H.N., Elhassein, S.A., Osman, N.A. and Abduelrahman, H.N. (2009) Repellent Activities of the Essential Oils of Four Sudanese Accessions of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) against Anopheles Mosquito. Journal of Applied Sciences, 9, 2645-2648. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jas.2009.2645.2648
Alizadeh, A. (2013) Essential Oil Constituents, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Salvia virgate Jacq. from Iran. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 16, 172-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2013.793974
Al-Qudah, M.A., Al-Jaber, H.I., Abu Zarga, M.H. and Abu Orabi, S.T. (2014) Flavonoid and Phenolic Compounds from Salvia palaestina L. Growing Wild in Jordan and Their Antioxidant Activities.Phytochemistry, 99, 115-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.01.001
Usano-Alemany, J., Pala-Paul, J., Rodriguez, M.S. and Herraiz Penalver, D. (2014) Chemical Description and Essential Oil Yield Variability of Different Accessions of Salvia lavandulifolia. Natural Product Community, 9, 273-276.
Asadollahi, A., Mirza, M., Abbaszadeh, B., Azizpour, S. and Keshavarzi, A. (2013) Comparison of Essential Oil from Leaves and Inflorescence of Three Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Populations under Drought Stress. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production (Online), 4, 2764-2767.
Unnithan, C.R., Dagnaw, W., Undrala, S. and Subban, R. (2013) Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential oil of Ocimum basilicum of Northern Ethiopia. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 2, 1-4.