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The Impact of Anthropogenic Heat on Formation of Urban Heat Island and Energy Consumption Balance

DOI: 10.1155/2011/497524

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This paper investigates the impact of anthropogenic heat on formation of urban heat island (UHI) and also determines which factors can directly affect energy use in the city. It explores literally the conceptual framework of confliction between anthropogenic heat and urban structure, which produced UHI intensity and affected energy consumption balance. It then discusses how these two factors can be affected and gives implication to the city and then focuses on whether actions should be taken for balancing adaptation and mitigation of UHI effects. It will be concluded by making the three important strategies to minimise the impact of UHI on energy consumption: landscaping, using albedo materials on external surfaces of buildings and urban areas, and promoting natural ventilation. 1. Introduction The urban built environment itself is related to global changes in the increase of urban temperatures, the rate of energy consumption, the increased use of raw materials, pollution, and the production of waste, conversion of agricultural to developed land, loss of biodiversity, and water shortages [1]. It is clear that buildings not designed for high climatic quality use more energy for air conditioning and more electricity for lighting. Moreover, discomfort and inconvenience to the urban population due to high temperatures, wind tunnel effects in streets, and unusual wind turbulence due to the incorrect use of energy. With the concentration of anthropogenic activities into urban areas, a climatic environmental problem, the “urban heat island” (UHI), has emerged. A UHI is a climatic phenomenon in which urban areas have higher air temperature than their rural surroundings as a result of anthropogenic modifications of land surfaces, significant energy use, and its consequent generation of waste heat. Thus, this proves to be an unsustainable factor that leads to excessive energy use for cooling and places the urban population at greater risk of increased morbidity and mortality. According to the above perspective and considering that rapid and huge population growth is expected in the near future, it becomes increasingly important to apply UHI mitigation strategies in order to reduce energy consumption and improve the quality of life with focusing on energy consumption. Thus, this paper investigates the anthropogenic heat factors that produce the UHI and result in the use of significantly increased use of energy. Then, according to the Oke’s energy balance conceptual model, all of the energy which is absorbed by the surface through radiation or from anthropogenic

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