All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Mood Disorders among Older Adults Participating in Individual and Group Active Environments: “Me” versus “Us,” or Both?

DOI: 10.1155/2012/727983

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Involvement in physical activity is associated with improved mental health including better social skills, coping mechanisms, and lower rates of depression. However, evidence on whether group or individual active environments better facilitate these benefits remains inconsistent. This cross-sectional cohort study examined the mental health reports of older adults (aged 50+) in relation to participation in group or individual active environments. Logistic multivariate regression analyses were conducted on the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 4.1, 2007-2008, ?? = 4 4 , 0 5 7 ). Results illustrated that those active in both group and individual environments were 59% less likely to have a mood disorder than those who were not participating in either ( ?? < 0 . 0 0 1 ). Also, those active in both environments were 31% less likely to have a mood disorder than those active in an individual environment ( ?? < 0 . 0 0 1 ). Participating in only group or only individual environments had a similar effect compared to individuals not active in any environments for reducing rates of reported mood disorders (22% and 28%, resp.). However, the findings related to only group environments were not significant. These findings reveal that participating in both group and individual physical activities may have important implications for maintaining older adults' mental health status. 1. Introduction Older adults in Canada are the fastest growing cohort of the population [1], a trend echoed in other industrialized nations [2]. Currently, over 35% of the Canadian population is comprised of individuals aged 50 years and above, a number expected to rise as the baby boom generation progresses further into older age [2, 3]. Research has concluded that older individuals who are living longer often do so with a reduced quality of life and a greater disease/disability burden [4]. With these outcomes in mind, a growing field of research has begun to focus on how to facilitate “successful aging” amongst the aging population. A vital component of many successful aging models pertains to maintaining one’s psychological and mental health [5, 6]. Mood disorders are a growing health concern for an aging population. For example, the percentage of Canadians reporting a diagnosed mood disorder rose from 5.3% in 2003 to 6.3% in 2009; 43% of those reporting a mood disorder in 2009 were 50 years of age and greater [7, 8]. A major mood disorder is an umbrella term for a range of depressive and manic disorders, and their variants. Depressive disorders are marked by experiencing negative


[1]  Statistics Canada, “Population projections for Canada, provinces and territories, 2005–2031,” (Catalogue No. 91-520-XIE),, 2005.
[2]  United Nations, World Population Ageing: 1950–2050, Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, New York, NY, USA, 2002.
[3]  Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Statistics Canada, Ottawa Canada, 2008.
[4]  Y. Hellstr?m and I. R. Hallberg, “Perspectives of elderly people receiving home help on health, care and quality of life,” Health and Social Care in the Community, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 61–71, 2001.
[5]  J. W. Rowe and R. L. Kahn, “Human aging: usual and successful,” Science, vol. 237, no. 4811, pp. 143–149, 1987.
[6]  W. J. Strawbridge, R. D. Cohen, S. J. Shema, and G. A. Kaplan, “Successful aging: predictors and associated activities,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 144, no. 2, pp. 135–141, 1996.
[7]  R. M. Crum, J. C. Anthony, S. S. Bassett, and M. F. Folstein, “Population-based norms for the Mini-Mental State Examination by age and educational level,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 269, no. 18, pp. 2386–2391, 1993.
[8]  Statistics Canada, “Health indicator profile, annual estimates, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2011 boundaries) and peer groups,” (Table 105-0501),, 2011.
[9]  American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 2000.
[10]  J. A. Blumenthal, M. A. Babyak, K. A. Moore et al., “Effects of exercise training on older patients with major depression,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 19, pp. 2349–2356, 1999.
[11]  R. Robertson, A. Robertson, R. Jepson, and M. Maxwell, “Walking for depression or depressive symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Mental Health and Physical Activity, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 66–75, 2012.
[12]  M. Babyak, J. A. Blumenthal, S. Herman et al., “Exercise treatment for major depression: maintenance of therapeutic benefit at 10 months,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 633–638, 2000.
[13]  M. R. Beauchamp, A. V. Carron, S. McCutcheon, and O. Harper, “Older adults' preferences for exercising alone versus in groups: considering contextual congruence,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 200–206, 2007.
[14]  K. Andriessen and K. Krysinska, “Can sports events affect suicidal behavior? A review of the literature and implications for prevention,” Crisis, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 144–152, 2009.
[15]  S. M. Burke, A. V. Carron, M. A. Eys, N. Ntoumanis, and P. A. Estabrooks, “Group versus individual approach? A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity,” Sport and Exercise Psychology Review, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 19–35, 2006.
[16]  P. Callaghan, “Exercise: a neglected intervention in mental health care?” Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 476–483, 2004.
[17]  A. J. Daley, “Exercise therapy and mental health in clinical populations: is exercise therapy a worthwhile intervention?” Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 262–270, 2002.
[18]  A. C. King, W. L. Haskell, C. Barr Taylor, H. C. Kraemer, and R. F. DeBusk, “Group vs home-based exercise training in healthy older men and women. A community-based clinical trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 266, no. 11, pp. 1535–1542, 1991.
[19]  S. K. Powers and E. T. Howley, Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance, McGraw Hill, New York, NY, 6th edition, 2007.
[20]  Y. Netz, “Physical activity and three dimensions of psychological functioning in advanced age: cognitive, affect and self-perception,” in Handbook of Sport Psychology, G. Tenenbaum and R. C. Ecklund, Eds., pp. 492–508, John C. Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 3rd edition, 2007.
[21]  C. B. Taylor, J. F. Sallis, and R. Needle, “The relation of physical activity and exercise to mental health,” Public Health Reports, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 195–202, 1985.
[22]  A. V. Carron, K. S. Spink, and H. Prapavessis, “Team building and cohesiveness in the sport and exercise setting: use of indirect interventions,” Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 61–72, 1997.
[23]  B. A. Meisner, S. Dogra, A. J. Logan, J. Baker, and P. L. Weir, “Do or decline? Comparing the effects of physical inactivity on biopsychosocial components of successful aging,” Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 688–696, 2010.
[24]  L. R. Brawley, W. J. Rejeski, and L. Lutes, “A group-mediated cognitive-behavioral intervention for increasing adherence to physical activity in older adults,” Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 47–65, 2000.
[25]  P. A. Estabrooks and A. V. Carron, “Group cohesion in older adult exercisers: prediction and intervention effects,” Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 575–588, 1999.
[26]  K. R. Fox, A. Stathi, J. McKenna, and M. G. Davis, “Physical activity and mental well-being in older people participating in the Better Ageing Project,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 591–602, 2007.
[27]  A. C. King, C. B. Taylor, and W. L. Haskell, “Effects of differing intensities and formats of 12 months of exercise training on psychological outcomes in older adults,” Health Psychology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 292–300, 1993.
[28]  W. J. Rejeski and B. C. Focht, “Aging and physical disability: on integrating group and individual counseling with the promotion of physical activity,” Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 166–170, 2002.
[29]  J. Baker, J. Fraser-Thomas, R. A. Dionigi, and S. Horton, “Sport participation and positive development in older persons,” European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 2010.
[30]  S. A. Hawkins, R. A. Wiswell, and T. J. Marcell, “Exercise and the master athlete—a model of successful aging?” Journals of Gerontology A, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 1009–1011, 2003.
[31]  J. Cairney and N. Krause, “The social distribution of psychological distress and depression in older adults,” Journal of Aging and Health, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 807–835, 2005.
[32]  M. Afifi, “Gender differences in mental health,” Singapore Medical Journal, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 385–391, 2007.
[33]  K. Lasser, J. W. Boyd, S. Woolhandler, D. U. Himmelstein, D. McCormick, and D. H. Bor, “Smoking and mental illness: a population-based prevalence study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 284, no. 20, pp. 2606–2610, 2000.
[34]  C. A. Okoro, R. D. Brewer, T. S. Naimi, D. G. Moriarty, W. H. Giles, and A. H. Mokdad, “Binge drinking and health-related quality of life: do popular perceptions match reality?” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 230–233, 2004.
[35]  N. Steverink, R. Veenstra, A. J. Oldehinkel, R. O. B. Gans, and J. G. M. Rosmalen, “Is social stress in the first half of life detrimental to later physical and mental health in both men and women?” European Journal of Ageing, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 21–30, 2011.
[36]  K. McCaul, J. Baker, and J. K. Yardley, “Predicting substance use from physical activity intensity in adolescents,” Pediatric Exercise Science, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 277–289, 2004.
[37]  T. A. Judge and J. E. Bono, “Relationship of core self-evaluations traits—self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability—with job satisfaction and job performance: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 80–92, 2001.
[38]  K. A. Barbour, T. M. Edenfield, and J. A. Blumenthal, “Exercise as a treatment for depression and other psychiatric disorders: a review,” Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 359–367, 2007.
[39]  J. B. Bartholomew, D. Morrison, and J. T. Ciccolo, “Effects of acute exercise on mood and well-being in patients with major depressive disorder,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 2032–2037, 2005.
[40]  A. L. Dunn, M. H. Trivedi, and H. A. O'Neal, “Physical activity dose-response effects on outcomes of depression and anxiety,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 33, supplement 6, pp. S587–S597, 2001.
[41]  A. Str?hle, “Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 116, no. 6, pp. 777–784, 2009.
[42]  J. Baker, B. A. Meisner, A. J. Logan, A. M. Kungl, and P. Weir, “Physical activity and successful aging in canadian older adults,” Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 223–235, 2009.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal