All developmental plasticity arises through epigenetic mechanisms. In this paper we focus on the nature, origins, and consequences of these mechanisms with a focus on horned beetles, an emerging model system in evolutionary developmental genetics. Specifically, we introduce the biological significance of developmental plasticity and summarize the most important facets of horned beetle biology. We then compare and contrast the epigenetic regulation of plasticity in horned beetles to that of other organisms and discuss how epigenetic mechanisms have facilitated innovation and diversification within and among taxa. We close by highlighting opportunities for future studies on the epigenetic regulation of plastic development in these and other organisms. 1. Introduction Organismal form and function emerge during ontogeny through complex interactions between gene products, environmental conditions, and ontogenetic processes [1, 2]. The causes, nature, and consequences of these interactions are the central foci of epigenetics . Broadly, epigenetics seeks to understand how phenotypes emerge through developmental processes, and how that emergence is altered to enable evolutionary modification, radiation, and innovation. Epigenetic mechanisms can operate at any level of biological organization above the sequence level, from the differential methylation of genes to the somatic selection of synaptic connections and the integration of tissue types during organogenesis. Here, we take this inclusive definition of epigenetics and apply it to the phenomenon of developmental plasticity, defined as a genotype’s or individual’s ability to respond to changes in environmental conditions through changes in its phenotypes . All developmental plasticity is, by definition, epigenetic in origin, as the genotype of the responding individual remains unaltered in the process. It is the nature, origins, and consequences of the underlying epigenetic mechanisms that we focus on in this review. We do so with specific reference to horned beetles, an emerging model system in evo-devo in general and the evolutionary developmental genetics of plasticity in particular. We begin our review with a general introduction to the concept of developmental plasticity. We then introduce our focal organisms, horned beetles, summarize the most relevant forms of plasticity that have evolved in these remarkable organisms, review what is known about the underlying epigenetic mechanisms, and highlight future research directions. Lastly, we discuss how studies in Onthophagus species could provide
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