All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

The Hypothesis of Hyperia from the Perspective of Neuronal Plasticity

DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2016.51003, PP. 17-26

Keywords: Bipolar Disorder, Glutamate, Partial Seizures, RDoC, Repetition, Reflex Epilepsies, Schizophrenia

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


We analyze certain mental automatisms appearing in the consciousness with phenomenological features of simple partial seizures (SPSs). We propose to include all these phenomena into a cognitive function to which we term hyperia. In this paper, we analyze the similarities between the nature of this cognitive function and the mechanisms used by our brain to elicit neuronal plasticity.


[1]  Kinnier Wilson, S.A. (1928) Modern Problems in Neurology. Edward Arnold, London.
[2]  Ey, H. (1954) études Psychiatriques. Desclée de Brouwer, Paris.
[3]  álvarez, J. (2001) Neuronal Hypersyncronization, Creativity and Endogenous Psychoses. Medical Hypotheses, 56, 672-685.
[4]  Alvarez-Rodriguez, J., Alvarez-Silva, S. and Alvarez-Silva, I. (2005) Epilepsy and Psychiatry: Automatic Psychic Paroxysms. Medical Hypotheses, 65, 671-675.
[5]  Alvarez-Rodriguez, J. (2014) Psychic Neuronal Hypersynchronies: A New Psychiatric Paradigm? Health, 6, 2089-2099.
[6]  Devinsky, O. and Luciano, D. (1991) Psychic Phenomena in Partial Seizures. Seminars in Neurology, 11, 100-109.
[7]  Jaspers, K. (1997) General Psychopathology. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.
[8]  Beaumanoir, A., Gastaut, H. and Naquet, R. (1989) Reflex Seizures and Reflex Epilepsies. Editions Médicine et Hygiène, Paris.
[9]  Critchley, M. and Henson, R.A. (1977) Music and the Brain. William Heinemann Medical Books Limited, London.
[10]  Penman, J. and Becker, J. (2009) Religious Ecstatics, “Deep Listeners”, and Musical Emotion. Empirical Musicology Review, 4, 49-70.
[11]  Pontius, A.A. and Wieser, H.G. (2004) Can Memories Kindle Nonconvulsive Behavioral Seizures in Humans? Case Report Exemplifying the “Limbic Psychotic Trigger Reaction”. Epilepsy & Behavior, 5, 775-783.
[12]  Schwartzkroin, P.A. (2007) Epilepsy: Models, Mechanisms and Concepts. Cambridge University Press, New York.
[13]  Sengupta, A., Mahmoud, A., Tun, S.Z. and Goulding, P. (2010) Orgasm-Induced Seizures: Male Studied with Ictal Electroencephalography. Seizure, 19, 306-309.
[14]  Ozkara, C., Ozdemir, S., Yilmaz, A., Uzan, M., Yeni, N. and Ozmen, M. (2006) Orgasm-Induced Seizures: A Study of Six Patients. Epilepsia, 47, 193-197.
[15]  Wilson, W.A. and Bragdon, A. (1993) Brain Slice Models for the Study of Seizures and Interictal Spikes. In: Schwartzkroin, P.A., Ed., Epilepsy: Models, Mechanisms and Concepts, Cambridge University Press, New York, 371-387.
[16]  Uva, L., Librizzi, L., Wendling, F. and De Curtis, M. (2005) Propagation Dynamics of Epileptiform Activity Acutely Induced by Bicuculline in the Hippocampal-Parahippocampal Region of the Isolated Guinea Pig Brain. Epilepsia, 46, 1914-1925.
[17]  Traynelis, S.F., Wollmuth, L.P., McBrain, C.J., Meniti, F.S., Vance, K.M., Ogden, K.K., et al. (2010) Glutamate Receptor Ions Channels: Structure, Regulation, and Function. Pharmacological Reviews, 62, 405-496.
[18]  Hyper (2013) The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[19]  Excessiveness (2014) American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
[20]  Clairvoyance (2015)
[21]  Gerrans, P. (2014) Pathologies of Hyperfamiliarity in Dreams, Delusions and déjà vu. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 97.
[22]  Furlanetto, T., Bertone, C. and Becchio, C. (2013) The Bilocated Mind: New Perspectives on Self-Localization and Self-Identification. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 71.
[23]  Occhionero, M. and Cicogna, P.C. (2011) Autoscopic Phenomena and One’s Own Body Representation in Dreams. Consciousness and Cognition, 20, 1009-1015.
[24]  Brugger, P., Blanke, O., Regard, M., Bradford, D.T. and Landis, T. (2006) Polyopic Heautoscopy: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Cortex, 42, 666-674.
[25]  Alvarez-Silva, I., Alvarez-Rodriguez, J., Alvarez-Silva, S., Perez-Echeverria, M.J. and Campayo-Martínez, A. (2007) Melancholic Major Depression and Epilepsy. Medical Hypotheses, 69, 1046-1053.
[26]  Picard, F. and Kurth, F. (2014) Ictal Alterations of Consciousness during Ecstatic Seizures. Epilepsy & Behavior, 30, 58-61.
[27]  Huxley, A. (1963) The Doors of Perception. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., Berlin.
[28]  Hesse, H. (1963) Steppenwolf. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Carls-bad.
[29]  St. Ignatius of Loyola (1900) Autobiography. Benzinger Brothers, New York.
[30]  Noakes, R. (2014) Haunted Thoughts of the Careful Experimentalist: Psychical Research and the Troubles of Experimental Physics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 48, 46-56.
[31]  Bobrow, R.S. (2011) Evidence for a Communal Consciousness. Explore, 7, 246-248.
[32]  Pasricha, S.K. (2011) Relevance of Para-Psychology in Psychiatric Practice. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 4-8.
[33]  Persinger, M.A. and Saroka, K.S. (2012) Protracted Parahippocampal Activity Associated with Sean Harribance. International Journal of Yoga, 5, 140-145.
[34]  Venkatasubramanian, G., Jayakumar, P., Nagendra, H., Nagaraja, D., Deeptha, R. and Gangadhar, B. (2008) Investing Paranormal Phenomena: Functional Brain Imaging of Telepathy. International Journal of Yoga, 1, 66-71.
[35]  Rahey, S. (2004) Prescience as an Aura of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Epilepsia, 45, 982-984.
[36]  Malenka, R.C. and Bear, M.F. (2004) LTP and LTD: An Ebarrassment of Riches. Neuron, 44, 5-21.
[37]  Rebola, N., Srikmuar, B.N. and Mulle, C. (2010) Activity-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity of NMDA Recepotors. The Journal of Physiology, 588, 93-99.
[38]  Hard, O., Nader, K. and Wang, Y.T. (2013) GluA2-Dependent AMPA Receptor Endocytosis and the Decay of Early and Late Long-Term Potentiation: Possible Mechanisms for Forgetting of Short- and Long-Term Memories. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 369, 20130141.
[39]  Di Ciano, P. and Everitt, B.J. (2001) Dissociable Effects of Antagonism of NMDA and AMPA/KA Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Shell on Cocaine-Seeking Behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology, 25, 341-360.
[40]  Cottone, P., Imelo, A., Narayan, A.R., Kwak, J., Momaney, D. and Sbino, V. (2013) The Uncompetitive NMDA Receptor Antagonists Ketamine and Memantine Preferentially Increase the Choice for a Small, Immediate Reward in Low-Impulsive Rats. Psychopharmacology, 226, 127-138.
[41]  Pozzi, L., Baviera, M., Sachetti, G., Calcagno, E., Balducci, C., Invernizzi, R.W. and Carli, M. (2011) Attention Deficit Induced by Blockade of N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptors in the Prefrontal Cortex Is Associated with Enhanced Glutamate Release and cAMP Response Element Binding Protein Phosphorylation: Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors 2/3. Neuroscience, 176, 336-348.
[42]  Carli, N., Calcagno, E., Mainolfi, P., Mainini, E. and Invernizzi, R.W. (2011) Effects of Aripiprazole, Olanzapine, and Haloperidol in a Model of Cognitive Deficit of Schizophrenia in Rats: Relationship with Glutamate Release in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex. Psychopharmacholoy, 214, 639-652.
[43]  Greco, B., Invernizzi, R.W. and Carli, M. (2005) Phencyclidine-Induced Impairment in Attention and Response Control Depends on the Background Genotype of Mice: Reversal by the mGLU(2/3) Receptor Agonist LY379268. Psychopharmacology, 179, 68-77.
[44]  Moghaddam, B. and Javvit, D. (2012) From Revolution to Evolution: The Glutamate Hypothesis of Schizophrenia and Its Implication for Treatment. Neuropsychopharcalogy, 37, 4-15.
[45]  Krystal, J.H., Karper, L.P., Seibyl, J.P., Freeman, G.K., Delaney, R., Bremner, J.D., et al. (1994) Subanesthetic Effects of the Noncompetitive NMDA Antagonist, Ketamine, in Humans. Psychotomimetic, Perceptual, Cognitive, and Neuroendocrine Responses. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 199-214.
[46]  Lovinger, D.M., White, G. and Weight, F.F. (1990) NMDA Receptor-Mediated Synaptic Excitation Selectively Inhibited by Ethanol in Hippocampal Slice from Adult Rat. The Journal of Neuroscience, 10, 1372-1379.
[47]  Starr, M.S. (1996) The Role of Dopamine in Epilepsy. Synapse, 22, 159-194.<159::AID-SYN8>3.0.CO;2-C
[48]  Wolf, P. (1991) Acute Behavioral Symptomatology at Disappearance of Epileptiform EEG Abnormality. Paradoxical or “Forced” Normalization. Advances in Neurology, 55, 127-142.
[49]  Pollock, D.C. (1987) Models for Understanding the Antagonism between Seizures and Psychosis. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 11, 483-504.
[50]  Finn, M. (1986) Convulsive Therapy and Epilepsy Research. In: Trimble, M.R. and Reynolds, E.H., Eds., What Is Epilepsy? Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 217-228.
[51]  Van Ameringen, M., Manzini, C., Pipe, B. and Benett, M. (2004) Antiepileptic Drugs in Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: Role in Therapy. Drugs, 64, 2199-2220.
[52]  Landmark, C.J. and Johannessen, S.I. (2010) New Antiepileptic Drugs in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. In: Ritchner, M.S., Ed., Brain Protection in Schizophrenia, Mood and Cognitive Disorders, Springer, New York, 485-504.
[53]  Mazza, M., Di Nicola, M., Della Marca, G., Janiri, L., Bria, P. and Mazza, S. (2007) Bipolar Disorder and Epilepsy: A Biridectional Relation? Neurobiological Underpinings, Current Hypotheses, and Future Research Directions. Neurocientist, 13, 392-404.
[54]  Cookson, J. and Elliot, B. (2006) The Use of Anticonvulsants in the Aftermath of Mania. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20, 23-30.
[55]  Mendez, M. (2000) Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Epilepsy. In: Sadock, B. and Sadock, V., Eds., Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 261-273.
[56]  Hong, L. and Bainbridge, J.L. (2014) Anticonvulsant Effects of SSRIs. Mental Health Clinician, 2, 19.
[57]  Buchanan, G.F., Murray, N.M., Hajek, M.A. and Richerson, G.B. (2014) Serotonin Neurones Have Anti-Convulsant Effects and Reduce Seizure-Induced Mortality. The Journal of Physiology, 592, 4395-4410.
[58]  Faingold, C.L. and Randall, M. (2013) Effects of Age, Sex, and Sertraline Administration on Seizure-Induced Respiratory Arrest in the DBA/1 Mouse Model of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). Epilepsy & Behavior, 28, 78-82.
[59]  Ghasemi, M. and Dehpour, A.R. (2011) The NMDA Receptor/Nitric Oxide Pathway: A Target for the Therapeutic and Toxic Effects of Lithium. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 32, 420-434.
[60]  Bahremand, A., Ziai, P., Payandemehr, B., Rahimian, R., Amouzeqar, A., Khezrian, M., et al. (2011) Additive Anticonvulsant Effects of Agmatine and Lithium Chloride on Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Clonic Seizure in Mice: Involvement of α2-Adrenoceptor. European Journal of Pharmacology, 666, 93-99.
[61]  Li, B., Zhang, S., Li, M., Zhang, H., Hertz, L. and Peng, L. (2009) Down-Regulation of GluK2 Kainate Receptor Expression by Chronic Treatment with Mood-Stabilizing Anti-Convulsants or Lithium in Cultured Astrocytes and Brain, but Not in Neurons. Neuropharmacology, 57, 375-385.
[62]  Borowicz, K.K., Golyaska, D., Luszczki, J.J. and Czuczwar, S.J. (2011) Effect of Acutely and Cronichally Administered Venlafaxine on the Anticonvulsant Action of Classical Antiepileptic Drugs in the Mouse Maximal Electroshock Model. European Journal of Pharmacology, 670, 114-120.
[63]  Alper, K., Schwartz, K.A., Kilts, R.L. and Khan, A. (2007) Seizure Incidence in Psychopharmacological Clinical Trials: An Analysis of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Summary Basis of Approval Reports. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 345-354.
[64]  Jobe, P.C. and Browning, R.A. (2005) The Serotonergic and Noradrenergic Effects of Antidepressant Drugs Are Anticonvulsant, Not Proconvulsant. Epilepsy & Behavior, 7, 602-619.
[65]  Coyle, J.T. (1996) The Glutamatergic Dysfunction Hypothesis for Schizophrenia. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 3, 241-253.
[66]  Kim, J.S., Kornhuber, H.H., Schmid-Birgk, W. and Holzmüller, B. (1980) Low Cerebral Fluid Glutamate in Schizophrenic Patients and a New Hypothesis on Schizopgrenia. Neuroscience Letters, 20, 379-382.
[67]  Andrini, O., Meinild, A.K., Ghezzi, C., Murer, H. and Forster, I.C. (2011) Lithium Interactions with Na+-Coupled Inorganic Phosphate Cotransporters: Insights into the Mechanism of Sequential Cation Binding. American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology, 302, C539-C554.
[68]  Zhou, Y., Zomot, E. and Kanner, B.I. (2006) Identification of a Lithium Interaction Site in the Gamma-Aminobutyric (GABA) Transporter GAT.1. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 281, 22092-22099.
[69]  Fuldford, K.W. (2011) Neuroscience and Values: A Case Study Illustrating Developments in Policy, Training and Research in the UK and Internationally. Mens Sana Monographs, 9, 79-92.
[70]  Kinghorn, W.A. (2011) Whose Disorder: A Constructive MacIntyrean Critique of Psychiatric Nosology. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 36, 187-205.
[71]  Sanislow, C.A., Pine, D.S., Quinn, K.J., Kozak, M.J., Garvey, M.A., Heinssen, R.K., Wang, P.S. and Cuthbert, B.N. (2010) Developing Constructs for Psychopathology Research: Research Domain Criteria. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 631-639.
[72]  Keller, R.C., Ciu, W.T., Keller, M.B., McCullough, J.P., Klein, D.N., Amow, B., Dunner, D.L., Gelenberg, A.J., et al. (2000) A Comparison of Nefazodone, the Cognitive Behavioral-Analysis System of Psychotherapy, and Their Combination for the Treatment of Chronic Depression. The New England Journal of Medicine, 342, 1462-1470.
[73]  Cuijpers, P., Dekker, J., Hollon, S.D. and Andersson, G. (2009) Adding Psychotherapy to Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of Depressive Disorders in Adults: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 70, 1219-1229.
[74]  Zobel, I., Kech, S., van Calker, D., Dykierek, P., Berger, M., Schneibel, R. and Schramm, E. (2011) Long-Term Effect of Combined Interpersonal Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy in a Randomized Trial of Depressed Patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 123, 276-282.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal