All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

An Experimental Determination of Gross Calorific Value of Different Agroforestry Species and Bio-Based Industry Residues

DOI: 10.4236/nr.2016.71006, PP. 57-68

Keywords: Gross Calorific Value, Bomb Calorimeter, Biomass, Bioenergy, Agroforestry Residues

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Solid biomass fuels are useful and cost effective renewable energy source. The energy content of biomass is determined by its calorific value. The objective of this study was to determine experimentally the gross calorific value (GCV) of different agroforestry species and bio-based industry residues that could be used by: a) companies specialized in processing raw biomass solid biofuel production, b) small-scale consumers (households, medium-sized residential buildings, etc.). The fuel samples used were from agricultural residues and wastes (rice husks, apricot kernels, olive pits, sunflower husks, cotton stems, etc.), energy crops and wetland herbs (cardoon, switchgrass, common reed, narrow-leaf cattail), and forest residues (populus, fagus, pinus). The GCV of the bio-mass samples was experimentally determined based on CEN/TS 14918:2005, and an oxygen bomb calorimeter was used (Model C5000 Adiabatic Calorimeter, IKA?-Werke, Staufen, Germany). The GCV of different agroforestry species and residues ranges from 14.3 - 25.4 MJ?kg1. The highest GCV was obtained by seeds and kernels due to higher unit mass and higher lipid content. Pinus sylvestris with moisture content 24.59% obtained the lowest GCV (13.973 MJ?kg1).


[1]  Heinimö, J. (2008) Methodological Aspects on International Biofuels Trade: International Streams and Trade of Solid and Liquid Biofuels in Finland. Biomass Bioenergy, 32, 702-716.
[2]  Biomass Energy Center (2008)
[3]  Asian Biomass Handbook (2008)
[4]  UNEP (2009) Converting Waste Agricultural Biomass into a Resource. United Nations Environmental Programme, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, International Environmental Technology Centre, Osaka/Shiga.
[5]  OECD (2011) Toward Green Growth. OECD.
[6]  Farrell, A.E. and Gopal, A.R. (2008) Bioenergy Research Needs for Heat, Electricity and Liquid Fuels. MRS Bulletin, 33, 373-380.
[7]  Ravindranath, N.H., Balachandra, P., Dasappa, S. and Usha Rao, K. (2006) Bioenergy Technologies for Carbon Abatement. Biomass Bioenergy, 30, 826-837.
[8]  Ragauskas, A.J., Williams, C.K., Davison, B.K., Britovsek, G., Cairney, J., Eckert, C.A., Frederick Jr. W.J., Hallett, J.P., Leak, D.J., Liotta, C.L., Mielenz, J.R., Murphy, R., Templer, R. and Tschaplinski, T. (2006) The Path Forward for Biofuels and Biomaterials. Science, 311, 484-489.
[9]  Hillring, B. (2006) World Trade in Forest Production and Wood Fuel. Biomass Bioenergy, 30, 815-825.
[10]  McKendry, P. (2002) Energy Production from Biomass (Part 1): Overview of Biomass. Bioresource Technology, 83, 37-46.
[11]  Binder, J.B. and Raines, R.T. (2009) Simple Chemical Transformation of Lignocellulosic Biomass into Furans for Fuels and Chemicals. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 131, 1979-1985.
[12]  Nussbaumer, T. (2003) Combustion and Co-Combustion of Biomass: Fundamentals, Technologies and Primary Measures for Emission Reduction. Energy & Fuels, 17, 1510-1521.
[13]  Van Loo, S. and Koppejan, J. (2002) Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-Firing. IEA Bioenergy Task, 32, 7-53.
[14]  Gravalos, I., Kateris, D., Xyradakis, P., Gialamas, T., Loutridis, S., Augousti, A., Georgiades, A. and Tsiropoulos, Z. (2010) A Study on Calorific Energy Values of Biomass Residue Pellets for Heating Purposes. Proceedings of the 43rd FORMEC Conference on Forest Engineering: Meeting the Needs of the Society and the Environment, Padova, 11-14 July 2010.
[15]  Sotelo Montes, C., Silva, D.A., Garcia, R.A., Muñiz, G.I.B. and Weber, J.C. (2011) Calorific Value of Prosopis africana and Balanites aegyptiaca Wood: Relationships with Tree Growth, Wood Density and Rainfall Gradients in the West African Sahel. Biomass Bioenergy, 35, 346-353.
[16]  DD CEN/TS 14918 (2005) Solid Bio Fuels e Method for the Determination of Calorific Value.
[17]  Erakhrumen, A.A. (2009) Energy Value as a Factor of Agroforestry Wood Species Selectivity in Akinyele and Ido Local Government Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria. Biomass Bioenergy, 33, 1428-1434.
[18]  Telmo, C. and Lousada, J. (2011) The Explained Variation by Lignin and Extractive Contents on Higher Heating Value of Wood. Biomass Bioenergy, 35, 1663-1667.
[19]  Günther, B., Gebauer, K., Barkowski, W., Rosenthal, M. and Bues, C.-T. (2012) Calorific Value of Selected Wood Species and Wood Products. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 70, 755-757.
[20]  Patel, B. and Gami, B. (2012) Biomass Characterization and Its Use as Solid Fuel for Combustion. Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment, 3, 123-128.
[21]  Núñez-Regueira, L., Proupin-Castiñeiras, J. and RodriguezAñón, J.A. (2002) Energy Evaluation of Forest Residues Originated from Eucalyptus globules Labill in Galicia. Bioresource Technology, 82, 5-13.
[22]  Boundy, B., Diegel, S.W., Wright, L. and Davis, S.C. (2011) Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 4. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy.
[23]  Bahadori, A., Zahedi, G., Zendehboudi, S. and Jamili, A. (2014) Estimation of the Effect of Biomass Moisture Content on the Direct Combustion of Sugarcane Bagasse in Boilers. International Journal of Sustainable Energy, 33, 349-356.
[24]  Sluiter, A., Hames, B., Ruiz, R., Scarlata, C., Sluiter, J. and Templeton, D. (2008) Determination of Ash in Biomass. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.
[25]  Biedermann, F. and Obernberger, I. (2005) Ash-Related Problems during Biomass Combustion and Possibilities for a Sustainable Ash Utilization. Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Bios Bioenergiesysteme GmbH.
[26]  Oosterhuis, D.M. and Jernstedt, J. (1999) Morphology and Anatomy of the Cotton Plant (Chapter 2.1). In: Smith, W.C. and Cothren, J.T., Eds., Cotton: Origin, History, Technology, and Production, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[27]  Ramos, P.A.B., Guerra, Â.R., Guerreiro, O., Freire, C.S.R., Silva, A.M.S., Duarte, M.F. and Silvestre, A.J.D. (2013) Lipophilic Extracts of Cynara cardunculus L. var. Altilis (DC): A Source of Valuable Bioactive Terpenic Compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 8420-8429.
[28]  Shen, H., Fu, C., Xiao, X., Ray, T., Tang, Y., Wang, Z. and Chen, F. (2009) Developmental Control of Lignification in Stems of Lowland Switch-Grass Variety Alamo and the Effects on Saccharification Efficiency. BioEnergy Research, 2, 233-245.
[29]  Miklovic, S. (2000) Typha angustifolia Management: Implications for Glacial Marsh Restoration. Restoration and Reclamation Review, 6, 1-11.
[30]  Swearingen, J. and Saltonstall, K. (2010) Phragmites Field Guide: Distinguishing Native and Exotic Forms of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in the United States. Plant Conservation Alliance, Weeds Gone Wild.
[31]  ASAE (2001) Method of Determining and Expressing Fineness of Feed Materials by Sieving, ASAE S319.3. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, 573-576.
[32]  IKA®-WERKE C 5000 (2004) Control/Duo Control. Operating Instructions. Ver. 09 02.04, 1-128.
[33]  Chang, R. (2000) Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences. University Science Books, Sausalito, 74-117.
[34]  CEN/TS 14918:2005 (2005) Solidbio Fuels—Method for the Determination of Calorific Value, 66.
[35]  Hennessy, W. (2010) Review of Wood Fuel Testing Standards. CRL Energy Report No. 10-11013 for EECA, Wellington, 33.
[36]  CEN/TS 14774-1:2009 (2009) Solid Biofuels—Methods for the Determination of Moisture Content—Oven Dry Method Total Moisture—Reference Method, 12.
[37]  CEN/TS 14775:2004 (2004) Solid Biofuels—Method for the Determination of Ash Content, 12.
[38]  Haykiri-Acma, H. and Yaman, S. (2011) Comparison of the Combustion Behaviors of Agricultural Wastes under Dry Air and Oxygen. Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress: Bioenergy Technology (BE), Linköping, 8-13 May 2011.
[39]  Karaj, S. and Müller, J. (2010) Determination of Physical, Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Seeds and Kernels of Jatropha curcas L. Industrial Crops and Products, 32, 129-138.
[40]  Wannapeera, J., Worasuwannarak, N. and Pipatmanomai, S. (2008) Product Yields and Characteristics of Rice Husk, Rice Straw and Corncob during Fast Pyrolysis in a Drop-Tube/Fixed-Bed Reactor. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 30, 393-304.
[41]  Poddar, S., Kamruzzaman, M., Sujan, S.M.A., Hossain, M., Jamal, M.S., Gafur, M.A. and Khanam, M. (2014) Effect of Compression Pressure on Lignocellulosic Biomass Pellet to Improve Fuel Properties: Higher Heating Value. Fuel, 131, 43-48.
[42]  Valchev, I., Lasheva, V., Tzolov, T.Z. and Josifov, N. (2009) Silica Products from Rice Hulls. Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 44, 257-261.
[43]  Ludueña, L., Fasce, D., Alvarez, V.A. and Stefani, P.M. (2011) Nanocellulose from Rice Husk Following Alkaline Treatment to Remove Silica. BioResources, 6, 1440-1453.
[44]  Kludze, Η., Deen, Β. and Dutta, Α. (2013) Impact of Agronomic Treatments on Fuel Characteristics of Herbaceous Biomass for Combustion. Fuel Processing Technology, 109, 96-102.
[45]  Christian, D.G., Riche, A.B. and Yates, N.E. (2002) The Yield and Composition of Switch-Grass and Coastal Panic Grass Grown as a Biofuel in Southern England. Bioresource Technology, 83, 115-124.
[46]  Vamvuka, D., Topouzi, V. and Sfakiotakis, S. (2010) Evaluation of Production Yield and Thermal Processing of Switch-Grass as a Bio-Energy Crop for the Mediterranean Region. Fuel Processing Technology, 91, 988-996.
[47]  Mani, S., Tabil, L.G. and Sokhansanj, S. (2003) An Overview of Compaction of Biomass Grinds. Powder Handling and Processing, 15, 160-168.
[48]  Mani, S., Tabil, L.G. and Sokhansanj, S. (2004) Grinding Performance and Physical Properties of Wheat and Barley Straws, Corn-Stover and Switch-Grass. Biomass and Bioenergy, 27, 339-352.


comments powered by Disqus