Among the ablation procedures used against advanced liver cancer, thermal ablation therapy is widely applied, and the safety and efficacy of this technique have been well characterized. In contrast, the principle of cryosurgery is not only to control local recurrence, but also to stimulate the immune system into initiating an anti-tumor response. In recent years, we have developed a treatment method for patients with advanced liver tumors. From these experiences, repeated treatment was demonstrated to induce anti-cancer immune reaction-related factors. In the present review, mechanisms for anti-tumor immune reaction will be argued with introducing a novel strategy of a cryoablation.
G. Garcea, N. Polemonivi, E. O’Leary, T. D. Lloyd, A. R. Dennison and D. P. Berry, “Two-Stage Liver Resection and Chemotherapy for Bilobar Colorectal Liver Metastases,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, Vol. 30, No. 7, 2004, pp. 759-764. doi:10.1016/j.ejso.2004.05.009
E. K. Abdalla, J. N. Vauthey, L. M. Ellis, V. Ellis, R. Pollock, K. R. Broglio, et al., “Recurrence and Outcomes Following Hepatic Resection, Radiofrequency Ablation, and Combined Resection/Ablation for Colorectal Liver Metastases,” Annals of Surgery, Vol. 239, No. 6, 2004, pp. 818-825. doi:10.1097/01.sla.0000128305.90650.71
S. Osada, H. Imai, K. Yawata and Y. Sugiyama, “Growth Inhibition of Unresectable Tumors Induced by Hepatic Cryoablation: Report of Two Cases,” Hepatogastroenterology, Vol. 55, No. 81, 2008, pp. 231-234.
R. Adam, E. J. Hagopian, M. Linhares, J. Krissat, E. Savier, D. Azoulay, et al., “A Comparison of Percutaneous Cryosurgery and Percutaneous Radiofrequency for Unresectable Hepatic Malignancies,” Archives of Surgery, Vol. 137, No. 12, 2002, pp. 1332-1339.doi:10.1001/archsurg.137.12.1332
S. Mulier, P. Mulier, Y. Ni, Y. Miano, B. Dupas, G. Marchal, et al., “Complications of Radiofrequency Coagulation of Liver Tumors,” British Journal of Surgery, Vol. 89, No. 10, 2002, pp. 1206-1222. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2168.2002.02168.x
T. Shibata, T. Shibata, Y. Maetani, H. Isoda and M. Hiraoka, “Radiofrequency Ablation for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Prospective Comparison of Internally Cooled Electrode and Expandable Electrode,” Radiology, Vol. 238, No. 1, 2006, pp. 346-353.doi:10.1148/radiol.2381041848
C. Cha, F. T. Lee Jr., L. F. Rikkers, J. E. Niederhuber, B. T. Nguyen and D. M. Mahvi, “Rationale for the Combination of Cryoablation with Surgical Resection of Hepatic Tumors,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2001, pp. 206-213. doi:10.1016/S1091-255X(01)80034-2
M. B. Nicholl and A. J. Bilchik, “Thermal Ablation of Hepatic Malignancy: Useful but Still not Optimal,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2008, pp. 318-323. doi:10.1016/j.ejso.2007.07.203
C. L. Langrish, Y. Chen, W. M. Blumenschein, J. Mattson, B. Basham, J. D. Sedgwick, et al., “IL-23 Drives a Pathogenic T Cell Population that Induces Autoimmune Inflammation,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol. 201, No. 2, 2005, pp. 233-240. doi:10.1084/jem.20041257
D. O. Croci, M. F. Zacarias-Fluck, M. J. Rico, P. Matar, G. A. Rabinovich and O. G. Scharovsky, “Dynamic Cross- Talk between Tumor and Immune Cells in Orchestrating the Immunosuppressive Network at the Tumor Microenvironment,” Cancer Immunol Immunother, Vol. 56, No. 11, 2007, pp. 1687-1700. doi:10.1007/s00262-007-0343-y
G. A. Rabinovich, D. Gabrilovich, E. M. Sotomayor, “Immunosuppressive Strategies that are Mediated by Tumor Cells,” Annual Review of Immunology, Vol. 25, 2007, pp. 267-296. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.25.022106.141609
M. R. Shurin, L. Lu, P. Kalinski, A. M. Stewart-Akers and M. T. Lotze, “Th1/Th2 Balance in Cancer, Transplantation and Pregnancy,” Seminars in Immunopathology, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1999, pp. 339-359. doi:10.1007/BF00812261
F. Balkwill, K. A. Charles and A. Mantovani, “Smoldering and Polarized Inflammation in the Initiation and Promotion of Malignant Disease,” Cancer Cell, Vol. 7, 2005, pp. 211-217. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2005.02.013
M. Urano, C. Tanaka, Y. Sugiyama and S. Saji, “Antitumor Effects of Residual Tumor after Cryoablation: The Combined Effect of Residual Tumor and a Protein-Bound Polysaccharide on Multiple Liver Metastases in a Murine Model,” Cryobiology, Vol. 46, No. 3, 2003, pp. 238-245.doi:10.1016/S0011-2240(03)00039-7
E. Hatanaka, C. J. Furlaneto, F. P. Ribeiro, G. M. Souza and A. Campa, “Serum Amyloid A-induced mRNA Expression and Release of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Human Neutrophils,” Immunology Letters, Vol. 91, No. 1, 30 January 2004, pp. 33-37. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2003.09.011
B. H. Chao, X. He and J. C. Bischof, “Pre-Treatment Inflammation Induced by TNF-Alpha Augments Cryosurgical Injury on Human Prostate Cancer,” Cryobiology, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2004, pp. 10-27. doi:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2004.04.005
T. Nishimura, M. Nakui, M. Sato, K. Iwakabe, H. Kitamura, M. Sekimoto, et al., “The Critical Role of Th-1 Dominant Immunity in Tumor Immunology, Cancer Chemother,” Pharmacology, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2000, pp. 52-61. doi:10.1007/PL00014051
S. Osada, H. Imai, H. Tomita, Y. Tokyama, N. Okumura, H. Matsuhashi, et al., “Serum Cytokine Levels in Response to Hepatic Cryoablation, Journal of Surgical Oncology, Vol. 95, No. 6, 2007, pp. 491-498. doi:10.1002/jso.20712
S. Osada, K. Yawata, T. Tanahashi, N. Okumura, F. Sakashita, C. Tanaka, et al., “Report of Two Cases for Gastric Cancer Liver Metastasis Treated by Percutaneous Cryoablation Therapy with Immune Activation,” Journal of Japanese College of Surgeons, Vol. 30, No. 8, 2005, pp. 203-209.