The article analyzes the process by which Romanian immigrants to the Autonomous Community of Madrid (Spain) return to their country. Starting with the empirical reality and the theoretical focuses on human mobility as a form of transnationalism, the article emphasises on the characteristics which distinguish the Romanian collective from other collectives of immigrants living in Spain; circular migration that creates work networks. The paper reflects how the intensive mobility contributes to a process that is continuous and partial—hardly ever final. The first part of the article presents the phases of Romanian migration to the Autonomous Community of Madrid. It then delves into the process by which Romanians return to their country of origin, while detailing those factors that influence their decision. The conclusions point towards a renewal of studies on mobility within the framework of the European Union that links the border dynamic with the migration process. 1. Introduction The fall of the Iron Curtain (1989) meant the first exercise of freedom along with the fall of the totalitarian system for the people of Eastern Europe. A people without a tradition of international migration were to experience foreign viewpoints that were directly inspired by the models that were closest at hand, the careers of those exiled by communist governments. This new mobility was to be noted in the global tendencies of migration worldwide. Throughout the past two decades, the migration of Romanians within Europe has been closely linked to the policies of the European Community. As of the 1990s, Spain became one of the destinations of Romanian emigration. While it was slow at first, as of 2002, with the opening of the EC borders as a result of the Schengen Treaty allowing free circulation of Romanians, emigration from Romania became greater. The flow of Romanians towards Spain intensified in 2007 when Romania entered the EU. Madrid has continued to be the Autonomous Community where the majority of Romanians have settled in Spain. Networks that favored intense cyclical mobility between Romania and Spain were formed, which has made it impossible to closely follow the annual, monthly, and even daily movement by Romanians. Between 2007 and 2009, Spain and other EU countries imposed a moratorium that prevented Romanians and Bulgarians from freely entering the labour market. After 2009, Spain lifted the moratorium and allowed free circulation for Romanians and Bulgarians (The moratorium on the free circulation of Romanian and Bulgarian workers within Spanish territory lasted
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