All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Psyche  2010 

Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae) and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (Leguminosae) Seeds

DOI: 10.1155/2010/958348

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae) and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae) against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). On the basis of 48?hr median lethal toxicity ( L C 5 0 ), test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48?hr L C 5 0 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66?g/kg and 26.29?g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr L C 5 0 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11?g/L (A. sativum) and 0.411?g/L (A. fistulosum) were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus. 1. Introduction Grain storage has often resulted in quantitative and qualitative losses due to physical, chemical, and most importantly biological factors such as pests which may be birds, rodents, fungi, or insects [1–3]. The most important among storage pests are insects because apart from their direct damage they create conditions that allow secondary infestation by rot organisms mainly fungi [1, 4]. Once infestation is established pest insects cause gradual and progressive damage leading to losses in weight, nutritional, organoleptic, and aesthetic quality of stored grains. Osuji [1] listed 40 insects affecting stored grains, the most important among which is the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera; Bruchidae) responsible for up to 100% infestation of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (Leguminosae) during storage [1, 3, 5]. These observations justify the control of insect pests like C. maculatus in order to reduce losses in stored cowpea. Several methods are used in controlling insects in stored grains, including physical (smoking, sun-drying, heating), cultural, biological (male insect sterilization, natural enemies, resistant grain varieties), and chemical (synthetic and natural products) methods. The most common and widely used is the chemical method involving mainly the use of synthetic insecticides. Several workers have reported the successful wide scale use of synthetic organic insecticides, commencing with the organochlorines in the middle 1940s,


[1]  F. Osuji, Outline of Stored Products Entomology for the Tropics, Fourth Dimension, 1985.
[2]  O. A. Oke and S. Muniru, “Fungi associated with stored rice grains and their implications,” Nigerian Journal of Research and Review of Scientific, vol. 2, pp. 6–9, 2001.
[3]  N. E. S. Lale, Stored Product Entomology and Acarology, Mole Publications, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 2002.
[4]  A. Agrawal, S. Lal, and K. C. Gupta, “Protectant of pulses during storage,” Bulletin of Grain Technology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 95–99, 1988.
[5]  S. Jood, A. C. Kapoor, and R. Singh, “Evaluation of some plant products against Trogoderma granarium everts in sorghum and their effects on nutritional composition and organoleptic characteristics,” Journal of Stored Products Research, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 345–352, 1996.
[6]  K. N. Don-Pedro, “A population explosion of Aphis crassivora Koch following DDT application in a cowpea plot (Vigna unguiculata) in Nigeria,” Journal of Natural History, vol. 14, pp. 617–619, 1980.
[7]  O. B. Boroffice and R. A. Boroffice, “Pesticide usage in Nigeria and the health implication,” Nigerian Journal of Research and Review of Scientific, vol. 1, pp. 115–117, 1993.
[8]  A. A. Denloye, W. A. Makanjuola, and O. O. Babalola, “Toxicity and repellent effects of crude aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) on larval and adult Anopheles mosquitoes,” African Entomology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 287–290, 2003.
[9]  G. Stoll, Natural Crop Protection Based on Local Farm Resources in the Tropics and Subtropics, Josef Margraf, 1987.
[10]  A. M. Oparaeke, M. C. Dike, and C. I. Amatobi, “Insecticide potential of extracts of garlic, Allium sativum (Linnaeus) bulb and African nutmeg, Monodora myristica (Gaertn) Dunal seed for insect control on cowpea. Entomology in nation building: the Nigerian experience,” in Proceedings of 30th Annual Conference of Entomological Society of Nigeria (ESN '99), Kano, Nigeria, October 1999.
[11]  L. A. Tapondjou, C. Adler, H. Bouda, and D. A. Fontem, “Efficacy of powder and essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves as post-harvest grain protectants against six-stored product beetles,” Journal of Stored Products Research, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 395–402, 2002.
[12]  A. A. Denloye, K. O. Tesilim, H. Negbenebor, and W. A. Makanjuola, “Assessment of the efficacy of actellic and sumithion in protecting grains from insect infestation during storage,” Journal of Entomology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 24–30, 2008.
[13]  K. N. Don-Pedro, “Investigation of single and joint fumigant insecticidal action of citruspeel oil components,” Pesticide Science, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 79–84, 1996.
[14]  K. N. Don-Pedro, “Fumigant toxicity of citrus peels oil against adult and immature stages of storage insect pests,” Pesticide Science, vol. 47, pp. 213–223, 1996.
[15]  D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1971.
[16]  W. S. Abbot, “A simple method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide,” Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 18, pp. 265–267, 1925.
[17]  K. N. Don-Pedro, “Toxicity of some citrus peels to Dermestes maculatus Deg. and Callosobruchus maculatus (F),” Journal of Stored Products Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 31–34, 1985.
[18]  A. Kellouche and N. Soltani, “Biological activity of the powders of 5 plants and essential oil against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.),” International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 184–191, 2004.
[19]  A. A. Denloye and W. A. Makanjuola, “Evaluation of the crude aqueous extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) for the control of cowpea and maize weevils,” Journal of Prospect and Science, vol. 1, pp. 58–62, 1997.
[20]  A. A. B. Denloye, F. Adepoju, and M. A. Ajibade, “Studies on the insecticidal effects of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on Sitophilus zeamais,” in Proceedings of the 18th Annual conference of the Nigerian Institute of Science and Technology, pp. 18–26, November 2000.
[21]  M. Grieve, A. Modern Herbal, Savvas Publishing, 1985.
[22]  J. A. O. Ojewole, S. Rabin, and E. O. Shode, “Mosquito larvicidal properties of aqueous extract of Senna didymobotrya,” Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine, vol. 4, pp. 46–47, 2000.
[23]  I. Tun?, B. M. Berger, F. Erler, and F. Dagli, “Ovicidal activity of essential oils from five plants against two stored-product insects,” Journal of Stored Products Research, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 161–168, 2000.


comments powered by Disqus