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Convergence of Y chromosome STR haplotypes from different SNP haplogroups compromises accuracy of haplogroup prediction

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Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are two kinds of commonly used markers in Y chromosome studies of forensic and population genetics. There has been increasing interest in the cost saving strategy by using the STR haplotypes to predict SNP haplogroups. However, the convergence of Y chromosome STR haplotypes from different haplogroups might compromise the accuracy of haplogroup prediction. Here, we compared the worldwide Y chromosome lineages at both haplogroup level and haplotype level to search for the possible haplotype similarities among haplogroups. The similar haplotypes between haplogroups B and I2, C1 and E1b1b1, C2 and E1b1a1, H1 and J, L and O3a2c1, O1a and N, O3a1c and O3a2b, and M1 and O3a2 have been found, and those similarities reduce the accuracy of prediction.


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