One of the most promising features of the modernized global navigation satellite systems signals is the presence of pilot channels that, being data-transition free, allow for increasing the coherent integration time of the receivers. Generally speaking, the increased integration time allows to better average the thermal noise component, thus improving the postcorrelation SNR of the receiver in the acquisition phase. On the other hand, for a standalone receiver which is not aided or assisted, the acquisition architecture requires that only the pilot channel is processed, at least during the first steps of the procedure. The aim of this paper is to present a detailed investigation on the impact of the code cross-correlation properties in the reception of Galileo E1 Open Service and GPS L1C civil signals. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that the S-curve of the code synchronization loop can be affected by a bias around the lock point. This effect depends on the code cross-correlation properties and on the receiver setup. Furthermore, in these cases, the sensitivity of the receiver to other error sources might increase, and the paper shows how in presence of an interfering signal the pseudorange bias can be magnified and lead to relevant performance degradation. 1. Introduction In the context of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers, the interest on the new modulations that will be used for the modernized GPS L1C and Galileo E1 Open Service (OS) civil signals grew rapidly in past years. The definition of new signals structure results from an agreement between the European Commission and Unites States of America. A common Multiplexed Binary Offset Carrier Modulation (MBOC) signal baseline has been adopted, with the aim of assuring the compatibility and interoperability between GPS and Galileo systems . For the GPS L1C signal, USA has chosen the Time Multiplexed BOC (TMBOC) solution that multiplexes a BOC(1,1) with a BOC(6,1) in time domain , while the composite BOC (CBOC) is the implementation selected for the Galileo E1 OS Signal In Space (SIS) . One of the main features of the modernized civil and open access signals is the presence of the pilot channels. Pilot channel has been introduced to allow the receivers to perform coherent integration over a long time, without facing the issue of unpredictable data transitions. As a consequence, the receiver is able to acquire satellite signals at lower SNR than the nominal value. In order to deal with such a need in current GPS receiver, assistance data have been defined and
M. Fantino, P. Mulassano, F. Dovis, and L. Lo Presti, “Performance of the proposed galileo CBOC modulation in heavy multipath environment,” Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 323–339, 2008.
Global Positioning System Wing Systems Engineering & Integration, Interface Specification IS-GPS-800, Revision A. Navstar GPS Space Segment/User Segment L1C Interface, 2011, http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf/gps/IS-GPS-800A_Final_08Jun10.pdf.
European Union, European GNSS (Galileo) Open Service Signal In Space Interface Control Document, OS SIS ICD, Issue 1.1, 2010, http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/satnav/galileo/open-service/index_en.htm.
D. Margaria, S. Savasta, F. Dovis, and B. Motella, “Codes cross-correlation impact on the interference vulnerability of Galileo E1 OS and GPS L1C signals,” in Proceedings of the ION International Technical Meeting (ITM '10), pp. 1111–1121, San Diego, Calif, USA, January 2010.
D. Margaria, S. Savasta, F. Dovis, and B. Motella, “Comparative interference vulnerability assessment of GPS TMBOC and Galileo CBOC signals,” in Proceedings of the 22nd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS '09), pp. 38–48, Savannah, Ga, USA, September 2009.
B. Motella, S. Savasta, D. Margaria, and F. Dovis, “Method for assessing the interference impact on GNSS receivers,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 1416–1432, 2011.
B. Motella, S. Savasta, D. Margaria, and F. Dovis, “A method to assess robustness of GPS C/A code in presence of CW interferences,” Integrating Radio Positioning and Communications, vol. 2010, Article ID 294525, 8 pages, 2010.