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Connectivity of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

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We address the connectivity of large-scale ad hoc heterogeneous wireless networks, where secondary users exploit channels temporarily unused by primary users and the existence of a communication link between two secondary users depends on not only the distance between them but also the transmitting and receiving activities of nearby primary users. We introduce the concept of connectivity region defined as the set of density pairs -- the density of secondary users and the density of primary transmitters -- under which the secondary network is connected. Using theories and techniques from continuum percolation, we analytically characterize the connectivity region of the secondary network and reveal the tradeoff between proximity (the number of neighbors) and the occurrence of spectrum opportunities. Specifically, we establish three basic properties of the connectivity region -- contiguity, monotonicity of the boundary, and uniqueness of the infinite connected component, where the uniqueness implies the occurrence of a phase transition phenomenon in terms of the almost sure existence of either zero or one infinite connected component; we identify and analyze two critical densities which jointly specify the profile as well as an outer bound on the connectivity region; we study the impacts of secondary users' transmission power on the connectivity region and the conditional average degree of a secondary user, and demonstrate that matching the interference ranges of the primary and the secondary networks maximizes the tolerance of the secondary network to the primary traffic load. Furthermore, we establish a necessary condition and a sufficient condition for connectivity, which lead to an outer bound and an inner bound on the connectivity region.


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