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Large Vocabulary Arabic Online Handwriting Recognition System

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Arabic handwriting is a consonantal and cursive writing. The analysis of Arabic script is further complicated due to obligatory dots/strokes that are placed above or below most letters and usually written delayed in order. Due to ambiguities and diversities of writing styles, recognition systems are generally based on a set of possible words called lexicon. When the lexicon is small, recognition accuracy is more important as the recognition time is minimal. On the other hand, recognition speed as well as the accuracy are both critical when handling large lexicons. Arabic is rich in morphology and syntax which makes its lexicon large. Therefore, a practical online handwriting recognition system should be able to handle a large lexicon with reasonable performance in terms of both accuracy and time. In this paper, we introduce a fully-fledged Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based system for Arabic online handwriting recognition that provides solutions for most of the difficulties inherent in recognizing the Arabic script. A new preprocessing technique for handling the delayed strokes is introduced. We use advanced modeling techniques for building our recognition system from the training data to provide more detailed representation for the differences between the writing units, minimize the variances between writers in the training data and have a better representation for the features space. System results are enhanced using an additional post-processing step with a higher order language model and cross-word HMM models. The system performance is evaluated using two different databases covering small and large lexicons. Our system outperforms the state-of-art systems for the small lexicon database. Furthermore, it shows promising results (accuracy and time) when supporting large lexicon with the possibility for adapting the models for specific writers to get even better results.


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