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Synthesis from Knowledge-Based Specifications

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In program synthesis, we transform a specification into a program that is guaranteed to satisfy the specification. In synthesis of reactive systems, the environment in which the program operates may behave nondeterministically, e.g., by generating different sequences of inputs in different runs of the system. To satisfy the specification, the program needs to act so that the specification holds in every computation generated by its interaction with the environment. Often, the program cannot observe all attributes of its environment. In this case, we should transform a specification into a program whose behavior depends only on the observable history of the computation. This is called synthesis with incomplete information. In such a setting, it is desirable to have a knowledge-based specification, which can refer to the uncertainty the program has about the environment's behavior. In this work we solve the problem of synthesis with incomplete information with respect to specifications in the logic of knowledge and time. We show that the problem has the same worst-case complexity as synthesis with complete information.


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