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Linear embeddings of graphs and graph limits

DOI: 10.1016/j.jctb.2015.02.002

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Consider a random graph process where vertices are chosen from the interval $[0,1]$, and edges are chosen independently at random, but so that, for a given vertex $x$, the probability that there is an edge to a vertex $y$ decreases as the distance between $x$ and $y$ increases. We call this a random graph with a linear embedding. We define a new graph parameter $\Gamma^*$, which aims to measure the similarity of the graph to an instance of a random graph with a linear embedding. For a graph $G$, $\Gamma^*(G)=0$ if and only if $G$ is a unit interval graph, and thus a deterministic example of a graph with a linear embedding. We show that the behaviour of $\Gamma^*$ is consistent with the notion of convergence as defined in the theory of dense graph limits. In this theory, graph sequences converge to a symmetric, measurable function on $[0,1]^2$. We define an operator $\Gamma$ which applies to graph limits, and which assumes the value zero precisely for graph limits that have a linear embedding. We show that, if a graph sequence $\{ G_n\}$ converges to a function $w$, then $\{ \Gamma^*(G_n)\}$ converges as well. Moreover, there exists a function $w^*$ arbitrarily close to $w$ under the box distance, so that $\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}\Gamma^*(G_n)$ is arbitrarily close to $\Gamma (w^*)$.


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