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Model checking memoryful linear-time logics over one-counter automata

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We study complexity of the model-checking problems for LTL with registers (also known as freeze LTL) and for first-order logic with data equality tests over one-counter automata. We consider several classes of one-counter automata (mainly deterministic vs. nondeterministic) and several logical fragments (restriction on the number of registers or variables and on the use of propositional variables for control locations). The logics have the ability to store a counter value and to test it later against the current counter value. We show that model checking over deterministic one-counter automata is PSPACE-complete with infinite and finite accepting runs. By constrast, we prove that model checking freeze LTL in which the until operator is restricted to the eventually operator over nondeterministic one-counter automata is undecidable even if only one register is used and with no propositional variable. As a corollary of our proof, this also holds for first-order logic with data equality tests restricted to two variables. This makes a difference with the facts that several verification problems for one-counter automata are known to be decidable with relatively low complexity, and that finitary satisfiability for the two logics are decidable. Our results pave the way for model-checking memoryful (linear-time) logics over other classes of operational models, such as reversal-bounded counter machines.


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