It is of great interest to develop efficient ways to acquire accurate channel state information (CSI) for frequency division duplexing (FDD) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems for backward compatibility. It is theoretically well known that the codebook size for CSI quantization should be increased as the number of transmit antennas becomes larger, and 3GPP long term evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced codebooks also follow this trend. Thus, in massive MIMO, it is hard to apply the conventional approach of using pre-defined vector-quantized codebooks for CSI quantization mainly because of codeword search complexity. In this paper, we propose a trellis-extended codebook (TEC) that can be easily harmonized with current wireless standards such as LTE or LTE-Advanced by extending standardized codebooks designed for 2, 4, or 8 antennas with trellis structures. TEC exploits a Viterbi decoder and convolutional encoder in channel coding as the CSI quantizer and the CSI reconstructer, respectively. By quantizing multiple channel entries simultaneously using standardized codebooks in a state transition of trellis search, TEC can achieve fractional bits per channel entry quantization to have a practical feedback overhead. Thus, TEC can solve both the complexity and the feedback overhead issues of CSI quantization in massive MIMO systems. We also develop trellis-extended successive phase adjustment (TE-SPA) which works as a differential codebook of TEC. This is similar to the dual codebook concept of LTE-Advanced. TE-SPA can reduce CSI quantization error even with lower feedback overhead in temporally correlated channels. Numerical results verify the effectiveness of the proposed schemes in FDD massive MIMO systems.