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Mathematics  2015 

On forbidden moves and the Delta move

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Abstract:

We consider the quotient of welded knotted objects under several equivalence relations, generated respectively by self-crossing changes, $\Delta$ moves, self-virtualizations and forbidden moves. We prove that for welded objects up to forbidden moves or classical objects up to $\Delta$ moves, the notions of links and string links coincide, and that they are classified by the (virtual) linking numbers; we also prove that the $\Delta$ move is an unknotting operation for welded (long) knots. For welded knotted objects, we prove that forbidden moves imply the $\Delta$ move, the self-crossing change and the self-virtualization, and that these four local moves yield pairwise different quotients, while they collapse to only two distinct quotients in the classical case.

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