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Mathematics  2004 

Homological perturbations, equivariant cohomology, and Koszul duality

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Our main objective is to demonstrate how homological perturbation theory (HPT) results over the last 40 years immediately or with little extra work give some of the Koszul duality results that have appeared in the last decade. Higher homotopies typically arise when a huge object, e. g. a chain complex defining various invariants of a certain geometric situation, is cut to a small model, and the higher homotopies can then be dealt with concisely in the language of sh-structures (strong homotopy structures). This amounts to precise ways of handling the requisite additional structure encapsulating the various coherence conditions. Given e. g. two augmented differential graded algebras A and B, an sh-map from A to B is a twisting cochain from the reduced bar construction of A to B and, in this manner, the class of morphisms of augmented differential graded algebras is extended to that of sh-morphisms. In the present paper, we explore small models for equivariant (co)homology via differential homological algebra techniques including homological perturbation theory which, in turn, is a standard tool to handle sh-structures. Koszul duality, for a finite type exterior algebra on odd positive degree generators, then comes down to a duality between the category of sh-modules over that algebra and that of sh-comodules over its reduced bar construction. This kind of duality relies on the extended functoriality of the differential graded Tor-, Ext-, Cotor-, and Coext functors, extended to the appropriate sh-categories. We construct the small models as certain twisted tensor products and twisted Hom-objects. These are chain and cochain models for the chains and cochains on geometric bundles and are compatible with suitable additional structure.


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