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Physics  2002 

Universality classes in nonequilibrium lattice systems

DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.76.663

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Abstract:

This work is designed to overview our present knowledge about universality classes occurring in nonequilibrium systems defined on regular lattices. In the first section I summarize the most important critical exponents, relations and the field theoretical formalism used in the text. In the second section I briefly address the question of scaling behavior at first order phase transitions. In section three I review dynamical extensions of basic static classes, show the effect of mixing dynamics and the percolation behavior. The main body of this work is given in section four where genuine, dynamical universality classes specific to nonequilibrium systems are introduced. In section five I continue overviewing such nonequilibrium classes but in coupled, multi-component systems. Most of the known nonequilibrium transition classes are explored in low dimensions between active and absorbing states of reaction-diffusion type of systems. However by mapping they can be related to universal behavior of interface growth models, which I overview in section six. Finally in section seven I summarize families of absorbing state system classes, mean-field classes and give an outlook for further directions of research.

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