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Physics  2004 

Isotopic trends in nuclear multifragmentation

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An overview of the recent progress in the studies of nuclear multifragmentation is presented. Special emphasis is put on the exploration of isotopic trends in nuclear multifragmentation and the possibilities to extract physical information related to the nuclear equation of state. Relevant experimental methods of isotope identification are described. The isotopic composition of fragments is used to extract the values of thermodynamical observables of the system undergoing multifragmentation such as temperature and chemical potentials. Various methods for extraction of thermodynamical variables are analyzed. An overview of methods of isotope thermometry, exploring the sensitivity of various yield ratios to temperature, is presented. An exponential scaling of relative isotopic yields from reactions with different neutron content, called isoscaling, is used to explore the evolution of the isospin degrees of freedom of the system. Finally, the nuclear equation of state and the isospin-asymmetric liquid-gas phase transition in the nuclear matter are discussed.


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