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Physics  2014 

Hot Jupiters from Coplanar High-eccentricity Migration

DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/805/1/75

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We study the possibility that hot Jupiters are formed through the secular gravitational interactions between two planets in eccentric orbits with relatively low mutual inclinations ($\lesssim20^\circ$) and friction due to tides raised on the planet by the host star. We term this migration mechanism Coplanar High-eccentricity Migration because, like disk migration, it allows for migration to occur on the same plane in which the planets formed. Coplanar High-eccentricity Migration can operate from the following typical initial configurations: (i) inner planet in a circular orbit and the outer planet with an eccentricity $\gtrsim0.67$ for $m_{\rm in}/m_{\rm out}(a_{\rm in}/a_{\rm out})^{1/2}\lesssim0.3$; (ii) two eccentric ($\gtrsim0.5$) orbits for $m_{\rm in}/m_{\rm out}(a_{\rm in}/a_{\rm out})^{1/2}\lesssim0.16$. A population synthesis study of hierarchical systems of two giant planets using the observed eccentricity distribution of giant planets shows that Coplanar High-eccentricity Migration produces hot Jupiters with low stellar obliquities ($\lesssim30^\circ$), with a semi-major axis distribution that matches the observations, and at a rate that can account for their observed occurrence. A different mechanism is needed to create large obliquity hot Jupiters, either a different migration channel or a mechanism that tilts the star or the proto-planetary disk. Coplanar High-eccentricity Migration predicts that hot Jupiters should have distant ($a\gtrsim5$ AU) and massive (most likely $\sim1-3$ more massive than the hot Jupiter) companions with relatively low mutual inclinations ($\lesssim 20^\circ$) and moderately high eccentricities ($e\sim0.2-0.5$)


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