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Physics  2002 

Nonequilibrium quantum decay and decoherence in quantum impurity problems

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Using detailed balance and scaling properties of integrals that appear in the Coulomb gas reformulation of quantum impurity problems, we establish exact relations between the nonequilibrium quantum decay rates of the boundary sine-Gordon and the anisotropic Kondo model at zero temperature. Combining these results with findings from the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, we derive exact closed form expressions for the quantum decay rate of the dissipative two-state system in the scaling limit. These expressions illustrate how the crossover from weak to strong tunneling takes place. We trace out the regimes in which the usually applied Golden Rule (nonadiabatic) rate expression fails. Using a conjectured correspondence between the relaxation and dephasing rate, we obtain the exact lower bound of the dephasing rate as a function of bias and dissipation strength.


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