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Radial Basis Function Neural Network Application to Power System Restoration Studies

DOI: 10.1155/2012/654895

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One of the most important issues in power system restoration is overvoltages caused by transformer switching. These overvoltages might damage some equipment and delay power system restoration. This paper presents a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) to study transformer switching overvoltages. To achieve good generalization capability for developed RBFNN, equivalent parameters of the network are added to RBFNN inputs. The developed RBFNN is trained with the worst-case scenario of switching angle and remanent flux and tested for typical cases. The simulated results for a partial of 39-bus New England test system show that the proposed technique can estimate the peak values and duration of switching overvoltages with good accuracy. 1. Introduction In recent years, due to economic competition and deregulation, power systems are being operated closer and closer to their limits. At the same time, power systems have increased in size and complexity. Both factors increase the risk of major power outages. After a blackout, power needs to be restored as quickly and reliably as possible and, consequently, detailed restoration plans are necessary [1, 2]. If the frequency characteristic of the system shows resonance conditions around multiples of the fundamental frequency, very high and weakly damped temporary overvoltages (TOVs) of long duration may occur when the system is excited by a harmonic disturbance, such as the switching of lightly loaded transformers or transformer saturation [1, 3–5]. Overvoltages can be classified as transient overvoltages, sustained overvoltages, harmonic resonance overvoltages, and overvoltages resulting from Ferroresonance. Excessive sustained overvoltages may lead to damage of transformers and other power system equipment. Transient overvoltages are a consequence of switching operations on long transmission lines, or the switching of capacitive devices, and may result in arrester failures. Ferroresonance is a nonharmonic resonance characterized by overvoltages whose waveforms are highly distorted and can cause catastrophic equipment damages [1]. Overvoltage will put the transformer into saturation, causing core heating and copious harmonic current generation. Circuit breaker called upon to operate during periods of high voltage will have reduced interrupting capability. At some voltage even the ability to interrupt line-charging current will be lost [1, 6–8]. In [9], overvoltages caused by transformer energization have been evaluated using radial basis function neural network (RBFNN). Also in [10], switching overvoltages

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