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Physics  1997 

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: An experimentally accessible paradigm for quantum computing

DOI: 10.1016/S0167-2789(98)00046-3

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Abstract:

We present experimental results which demonstrate that nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is capable of efficiently emulating many of the capabilities of quantum computers, including unitary evolution and coherent superpositions, but without attendant wave-function collapse. Specifically, we have: (1) Implemented the quantum XOR gate in two different ways, one using Pound-Overhauser double resonance, and the other using a spin-coherence double resonance pulse sequence; (2) Demonstrated that the square root of the Pound-Overhauser XOR corresponds to a conditional rotation, thus obtaining a universal set of gates; (3) Devised a spin-coherence implementation of the Toffoli gate, and confirmed that it transforms the equilibrium state of a four-spin system as expected; (4) Used standard gradient-pulse techniques in NMR to equalize all but one of the populations in a two-spin system, so obtaining the pseudo-pure state that corresponds to |00>; (5) Validated that one can identify which basic pseudo-pure state is present by transforming it into one-spin superpositions, whose associated spectra jointly characterize the state; (6) Applied the spin-coherence XOR gate to a one-spin superposition to create an entangled state, and confirmed its existence by detecting the associated double-quantum coherence via gradient-echo methods.

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